opl_Oplevidopl_WELLdefnopl_Enddateopl_estndateopl_durationopl_reasonopl_endrate2opl_ENDqualopl_ENDpollopl_ENDcondaopl_ENDcondDopl_ENDcondPopl_ENDtrustopl_USERseenopl_RECORDcoopl_GENinfoopl_RECORDwiopl_RECORDphopl_RECORDmoopl_RECORDmaopl_RECORDlaopl_RECORDkeopl_RECORDavopl_ARENASopl_ARENfreqopl_UNDERresopl_MAINTresopl_labrdaysopl_PRIORappopl_INSURANCopl_insurdesopl_sexopl_ethncidopl_socstratopl_relanimsopl_commlangopl_Cultvwropl_Othrcommopl_ListPrbsopl_GENRELtnopl_OTHRcoopopl_SOCsanctopl_PHYsanctopl_MONsanctopl_VARsanctopl_BRIBERYopl_NONappopl_Numnon1opl_NUMnon2opl_Enumapp1opl_enumapp2opl_guardopl_SELFmonopl_PeakNumopl_PEAKgrdopl_OffpNumopl_OFFpgrdopl_monpaidopl_FULLtimeopl_NUMsubgpopl_subgp1opl_subgp2opl_subgp3opl_subgp4opl_REALoseropl_Realyesopl_WORSToffopl_RELequtyopl_ARESULTSopl_typeresulopl_aindictcopl_effindcopl_Familiesopl_Basisopl_Penaltyopl_Laboropl_TechEffopl_EconEffopl_Conditonopl_TailEndopl_Evaluateopl_HeadIntopl_TailIntopl_AveSizeopl_MaxSizeopl_Landlessopl_Formulaopl_Absenteeopl_sheadopl_sricehopl_sveghopl_smaizehopl_sochopl_sfallowhopl_stailopl_sricetopl_svegtopl_smaizetopl_soctopl_sfallowtopl_mheadopl_mricehopl_mochopl_mfallowhopl_mtailopl_mricetopl_moctopl_mfallowtopl_wheadopl_wwheathopl_wveghopl_wmaizehopl_wochopl_wfallowhopl_wtailopl_wwheattopl_wvegtopl_wmaizetopl_woctopl_wfallowtopl_mtonhaopl_winflowopl_lowflowopl_peakflowopl_SpDesopl_MonDesopl_WinDesopl_SpIrropl_MonIrropl_WinIrropl_SpUnopl_MonUnopl_WinUnopl_RecAuditopl_Offices
9,11198319838Tenants become owners of the land and invested more heavily in maintenance and improvement of the system.353,31,51,51,51,51,53,52,51,52,51,51,42,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,51750,42,52,5-21,32,32,32,31,31,31,3-22,43,31,52,54,31,55,52,5-1-11594,53,51,3-1-1-1-1-16,3213,114. Jan-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Skilled at use of SAACHO and apportioning water.-1Uses RWS (relative water supply) as an indicator of how efficiently water is used. Indicates an RWS of 1.3, which is not bad.Brahmin, Magar, Dami1,51,5Labor and cash are mobilized according to area served.1,51,51,51,5Water shares are distributed in proportion to the area irrigated. This system has to be united for resource mobilization of manpower on short notice (p.19). Rotation water distribution (p.23). Water allocation in proportion to size of landholding (p.37). Strong irrigation committee with quite effeicive rules and regulations (IIMI, 1989). Because of high fall near the water mill, a problem of land erosion exists (IIMI, 1989).300,5300,50,452,22221,5-1110090001001000011000021000011000000110000007,515637362,5-1
10,11198219825B5473,31,51,51,51,51,53,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,54,31,52,52115,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,44,44,31,55,51,5-2-21054,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-2115,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-21Suggests that when tenants become owners and secure in their rights to land, began to invest in the system. Suggests that 'share' system makes for highly efficient use of water. Separates water from the land. Therefore, accessible to anyone who wants to buy the water.-1Uses RWS (relative water supply) as an indication of bow efficiently water is used. Indicates a RWS of 1.3, where water demand exactly equals supply.Brahmin, Majhee, Magar, Chhetri, Kami2,52,5(1) Maintenance system is operated by the irrigators. One committee exists. Different names are: a) MAMULATE for ordinary mobilization, b) JHARA for immediate large mobilization, and c) MAHAJHARA for emergency. (2) In case of death of any farmers' family, he is exempted from the work.1,51,51,51,5(1) Good and strong irrigation organization. The mill belongs to the irrigation system as a common property. (2) Water shares are distributed among the members on the basis of investment made during the time of construction of the system. This system has to be united for resource mobilization of manpower on short notice. This is a water-stressed system which needs much supervision for water management. Rotation water distribution. Water allocation on the basis of original investment or purchased shares. (3) Possibility of expanding command area by conservation of water use.300,53003-13,53,50100100001001000011000011000011000000110000008,343525190-1
84,211991-22Unexpected increase in water changed the situation (therefore resulted in the decline of organization).200,51,51,53,53,52,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,5430,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,54,54,52,55,51,5-2-2215,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-20,5-21107,2-2-2-21,5Tailenders are in the disadvantaged position (p.57). In winter and spring.2,52,51,5The revitalization of existing organizational structure could enable this system to be more efficient. No pucca structures and no permanent intake.Time spent of weekly meetings for maintenance and walking through a foot trail from villages to command areas. Otherwise transaction costs are low.The yield level is expected to be higher in Char Hazar than in Sange Paryani. Necessity of the increase of labor mobilization for maintenance. Revitalization of farmers' irrigaition organization.Brahmin, Kumale and Darai castes. Most of landowners are Brahmins1,52,5To construct the brush dam (emergency), everybody must contribute voluntary labor (no exceptions). Maintenance groups decide the form of punishment for defaulters.3,52,53,53,5Deterioriation of Farmers' Irrigation Organization due to the sufficient leakage from the DOI system. High potential food production. This area contains 2 resources, the Sange Patiayani system and Char Hazar System. There appears to be plenty of water for both systems but the cropping intensity is low.There is a high degree of absentee land ownership, about 50%. Absentee owners are Brahmins who employ Kumals to work the land on a sharecropping basis (Adhiya).185,5105,50,15110,51,550,52800002035000951100001100001500095300001006,5-1225,4-1-1
85,1119837none312,51,52,52,52,52,43,51,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-1-21,51,52201,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,34,32,54,55,31,5-2-155,53,51,31,3-2-2-2-2-2-21242,1-2-2-21,4Farmers at the tailend complain about inefficiency of water. There was little difference, however, in production.2,52,51,5Author suggests that this system is 'water constrained' and therefore he expected to find a highly organized system. Due to lack of maintenence, however, the system was informally organized.-1No additional water available.Magars, Newars1,51,5Change in basis of labor was changed in 1980 from a per household to a per unit of land basis.2,52,52,52,3Author suggests that this system is 'water constrained' and therefore he expected to find a highly organized system. Due to lack of maintenance, however, the system was informally organized.2052005,58-231,5-115000952-1-1-1-1-111000021000011000000210000005,2-1-15-1
86,1119828112,51,51,51,51,51,33,5-11,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,31,51,51,52751,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,51,54,52,52,55,42,518,51,528,52,51,41,4-2-2-2-2-2-21251,1-2-2-21,3Low water allocation area designated in relatively newly constructed Khets. Water taken from adjacent fields.2,52,51,4Notes the lack of equity in this system but relates it to the original rights to water and the later expansion of the system.Meetings are held to discuss levels of fines, but does not suggest means of estimating transaction costs.Brahmin2,52,51,41,51,51,5Suggests that the rules which tie rights to water to families could be changed to water shares where surplus water could be sold to farmers who have land that could be irrigated but which is not.3003000,230,61-1-111009000100100001100002-1-1-111000000110000003,121070-1
96,211990-28-2.80,51,51,52,51,51,52,53,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,570,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,55,54,51,55,5221,570,53,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51116,22,5-22,52,51,5increase in the productivity, availability of more water, increase in the standard of life of the people in general.-2.use of improved variety of seeds.Tharu, Brahmins, Chhetries, Damai, Newar.4,54,5-2.1,51,52,51,5-2.2002000,41151,50,5200001003000010017129017129024600540246005405-1-1-1-1
97,2119912-2.101,51,51,52,53,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,54,52,54,5968,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,51,54,55,51,5-22,53,51,5121,54,54,51,52,51,52,51,500001.51,51117,20002,5-22,52,51,5-1-1According to farmers' own investment, good income can be raised.Brahmins, Chhetrie, Tharus and Chamars.51,52,5-2.2,52,52,53,5Performance of the system based on the water use eficiency indicates that extensive service provided by CARE and followup programs facilitated the performance of the system.200,5200,51,346,712,51,50,5300001003000010019010019010028000200280001004,2-1-1-1-1
98,1119837-13000,51,31,32,32,32,31,32,3-1-1-1-1-12,51,31,3-11,35,31,32,380000,31,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,33,52,34,31,31,34,3-1-1-125000,59,53,31,3-1-1-1-1112221,31118,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,3-1-1-1Pahadi and Tharu (assumed)1,52,360,000 people are mobilized for the maintenance of the main canal. Maintenance system is operated by the labor contribution by the beneficiaries. Four tiers (joint, central, regional and lower committees) exist. Proper record system by the central committee helped in institutionalizing the effective water users group.2,31,32,31,3This system has to be united for resource mobilization of manpower on short notice (p.19). As a large scale irrigation system (3,000 hectares), it has four levels of organization (p.21). Rotation water distribution (p.23). Strong organization (3 tiers organiztion) with written regulation and rules: water user group and Maujar (village) level. Water users' positive participation in the decision process.2002001-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11100001100003-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-111000,3-1
99,111987-22The Kulo was constructed under the 'Food For Work' programme in 1982.15,5-21,53,5-22,52,52,51,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-22,5-21,51,5-11,52,3-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,5-1-1-2-1-22,5-1-1250,55,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-21119,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,5Because there is no organized body to coordinate the management of the irrigation system, maintenance and operations have been inefficient. Farmers are not motivated to convert their existing Bari into Khet.-1-1Brahmin, Tamang, Chhetri4,5-1As a routine maintenance, the canal is cleaned twice a year. No committee is responsible for maintenance and operation of the Canal. Any work that has to be done must be performed by the beneficiary farmer. Mobilization of farmers during emergency repairs is especially difficult.3,43,43,42,4Inefficient management: there is no organization responsible for operation and maintenance of any Canal. Low conveyance capacity: landslide zones, stone and gravelly reaches, high infiltration of the soil. Low potential food production: low reliability of the irrigation system, lack of resources. The system is evaluated in terms of the proportion of its service area which is converted into Khet. This is so because the report is looking for any possibility in expanding irrigated area.200200-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11100001100002670330026703300580,460,4160,5-1
99,211991-22The Kulo was constructed under the 'Food For Work' programme in 1982.163,51,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,51,54,51,51,51,51,52,51,52,5150,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,53,5-2-1-21,5-1-1158,55,53,52,51,51,51,51,5-21,51119,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Because there is no organized body to coordinate the management of the irrigation system, maintenance and operations have been inefficient. Farmers are not motivated to convert their existing Bari into Khet. However, the situation is reversed after WECS/IIMI improvement program.lowInput-output ratio, max. utilization of available resources.Brahmin, Tamang, Chhetri4,53,5As a routine maintenance, the canal is cleaned twice a year. A committee is responsible for maintenance and operation of the Canal. Any work that has to be done must be performed by the beneficiary farmer. Mobilization of farmers during emergency repairs is especially difficult due to difficult terrain.1,51,51,53,5(a)Inefficient management: there was no organization responsible for O&M the Canal. Low conveyance capacity: landslide zones, stone & gravels, low reliability of the irrigation system. The system was evaluated in terms of the proportion of its service area which is converted into Khet for any possibility in expanding irrigated area. (2) After WECS/IIMI improvement program in 1988, there is a management committee to look after the O&M of the system. Canal capacity has been increased, and a predictable and adequate water supply. New lands are being brought under cultivation.167,5192,5130,51,50,5200001002000010011000011000026700033267150108480,460,4160,5-1
100,111987-23The system was constructed in 1974 by the collective effort of the beneficiaries.55,5-11,53,5-23,51,52,51,51,52,31,51,51,4-1-2-22,5-21,51,5200,51,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,4-1-1-1-2-1-21,3-2-2400,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21120,1-2-2-21,5The water rights within the system are found to be from head to tailend of the canal. As the canal has low conveyance capacity, tailenders get less water than required.2,42,41,5The low productivity of land in the service area is a result of inefficient management of water rights and low conveyance capacity of the canal caused by insufficient maintenance.-1-1Brahmin, Kshetri, Tamang .54,51,5No formal organization exists to maintain the system. The routine maintenance work is based on the information given by beneficiaries. Routine maintenance is carried out twice a year before the starting of monsoon crop and winter crop. No rule to penalize absence at maintenance work.2,42,43,41,5The system is evaluated in terms of the possibility of extending the canal to the nearby Archale Kholso Basin where water is needed.200200-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-111000021000011000000210000003,65295,5885,5-1
100,211991-23The system was constructed in 1974 by the collective effort of the beneficiaries.110,5-11,52,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,51,54,52,51,52,52,5-21,51,575,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,5-1-13,55,5-2-21,5-2-2300,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21120,2-2-2-22,5The water rights within the system are found to be from head to tailend of the canal. As the canal has low conveyance capacity, tailenders get less water than required. After WECS/IIMI improvement, the disparity has been lowered.2,53,52,5The low productivity of land in the service area was a result of inefficient management of water rights and low conveyance capacity of the canal caused by insufficient maintenance. The situation now is improved after WECS/IIMI improvement program.-1-1Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang .54,53,5No formal organization exists to maintain the system. The routine maintenance work is based on the information given by beneficiaries. Routine maintenance is carried out twice a year before the starting of monsoon crop and winter crop. No rule to penalize absence at maintenance work.1,51,52,53,5The system is evaluated in terms of the possibility of extending the canal to the nearby Archale Kholso Basin where water is needed. After WECS/IIMI improvement program, the canal capacity has been increased and it has been extended to the tail reach of canal command.2002000,410,51,52,5100001001000010011000011000011000000110000004295,5885,5-1
101,111987-26The canal was constructed in 1895 to irrigate the Khot village. It was extended to Dhap village a decade later.65,5-11,53,42,43,43,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,5-1-2-22,5-21,51,5400,31,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,52,5-1-1-2-1-22,5100,34,3400,45,41,52,4-2-2-2-2-2-21121,1-2-2-21,5The appropriators at Dhap village, which is located at the tailend of the canal, does not get adequate water.-11,51,5The water resource available at the headwork is sufficient for irrigating all the possible crops. The problems lies on stealing of water by headenders and Ghattas and some selfish persons are destroying the healthy environment of the past because they think if the people of Dhap village are deprived of getting water, they would get excellent money for construction of new canal.-1-1Tamang, Brahmin, Kshetri and Newar .54,51,5In 1979, 500 man-days of labor for emergency maintenance of headwork and stone wall (highest figure in the history).2,42,43,51,5Conflict between beneficiaries because of the stealing of water by the owners of Ghattas. Beneficiaries' positive demand to the government for contructing new canals. Lack of norm or rule to penalize people who are absent in the maintenance work, involved in stealing the water. Misutilization of government donation.200200-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-111000021000011000000210000003,55650,4325,51300,5-1
101,211991-26The canal was constructed in 1895 to irrigate the Kot village. It was extended to Dhap village a decade later.85,51,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,51,54,52,51,52,52,5-21,51,5150,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,53,55,5-2-22,530,52,5200,54,51,52,4-2-2-2-2-2-21121,2-2-2-21,5The appropriators at Dhap village, which is located at the tailend of the canal, does not get adequate water.1,51,51,5The water resource available at the headwork is sufficient for irrigating all the possible crops. The problems lies on stealing of water by headenders and Ghattas and some selfish persons are destroying the healthy environment of the past because they think if the people of Dhap village are deprived of getting water, they would get excellent money for construction of new canal. The situation no longer persists now(1991)lowincreased cropping intensity and production per unit of area.Tamang, Brahmin, Kshetri and Newar .54,53,5In 1979, 500 man-days of labor for emergency maintenance of headwork and stone wall (highest figure in the history).2,51,52,54,5Conflict between beneficiaries because of the stealing of water by the owners of Ghattas. Beneficiaries' positive demand to the government for contructing new canals. Lack of norm or rule to penalize people who are absent in the maintenance work, involved in stealing the water. Misutilization of government donation. After WECS/IIMI intervention, the situation is improved.235,5235,50,430,750,51,53,5150300651003506511000011000018550100110000005,5650,4325,51300,5-1
102,111987-24The system was constructed by farmers in 1938 with the initiation of a Subedar.40,5-11,53,4-23,43,42,51,42,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-22,5-21,51,5425,51,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,33,44,4-2-2-22,5300,35,5125,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21122,1-2-2-21,5Those appropriators at the tailend are not getting adequate water.2,42,41,5The conflicts between headenders and tailenders and the ignorant use of the resource are the two main reasons for inefficient utilization of the resource.-1The measurement of discharge shows that there is enough water in the source for irrigating monsoon paddy and winter wheat in the proposed 150ha Khet. The cause of inefficiency is the overflooding of water by the farmers towards the head of the canal.-14,51,5The contribution of labour for emergency work (headwork repair) is based on the land holding size of farmers. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for operation and maintenance.3,43,33,41,4Insufficient management: no organization for responsible operation and maintenance. Low potential food production because of limiting and inefficient use of water. Inappropriate operation of the canal of Dhap Kulo. (p.86)250250-1-1-1-1-1150050002500500011000011000012000080220000805,993051830-1
102,211991-24The system was constructed by farmers in 1938 with the initiation of a Subedar.15,51,51,51,52,51,52,53,51,42,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-22,5-21,51,5425,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,51,53,53,5-2-2-21,5-2-230,52,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21122,2-2-2-22,5Those appropriators at the tailend are not getting adequate water. Now Dhap canal has its own intake and Subedar canal is not required to share its water with Dhap. So there is no more head-tail problem.2,53,51,5Efficient use of resources.LowThe measurement of discharge shows that there is enough water in the source for irrigating monsoon paddy and winter wheat in the 15ha Khet.Brahmin, Chhetri.6,51,5The contribution of labour for emergency work (headwork repair) is based on the land holding size of farmers. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for operation and maintenance.1,51,51,51,5Insufficient management: no organization for responsible operation and maintenance. Low potential food production because of limiting and inefficient use of water. It has not operated its own intake after a big flood and siltation in 1988. Instead it has been diverting water from another spring which has unpredictable water supply.270,5270,50,510,51,511750250027502500110000110000150101003025010010306-1305,51830,5-1
103,111987-24The Dhap Kulo was constructed at the downstream of Subedar Ko Kulo to utilize the leakage water from Subedar Ko Kulo.70,53,41,54,4-23,43,42,51,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-22,5-21,51,5425,51,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,33,44,45-2-22-1-1-1-11,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21123,1-2-2-21,5The tailenders are not getting adequate water.2,42,41,5The conflicts between headenders and tailenders, and the ignorant use of the resource, are the two main reasons for inefficient utilization of the resources.-1The measurement of discharge shows that there is enough water in the source for irrigating monsoon paddy and winter wheat in the proposed 150ha Khet. The cause of inefficiency is the overflooding of water by headenders.-14,51,5The contribution of labor for emergency work (headwork repair) is based on the land holding size of farmers. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for operation and maintenance.3,42,44,41,4Insufficient management: no organization for responsible operation and maintenance. Low potential food production because of limiting and inefficient use of water. Cooperation relation of upper canal (Subedar Ko Kulo).250250-1-1-1-1-1120080002200800011000011000012000080220000805,751220,5305,51830,5-1
103,211991-24The Dhap Kulo was constructed at the downstream of Subedar Ko Kulo to utilize the leakage water from Subedar Ko Kulo.50,51,51,52,52,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,52,51,5-21,51,5100,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,53,53,55,5-2-21,5-2-295,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21123,2-2-2-22,5The tailenders are not getting adequate water. After, WECS/IIMI intervention, it is not a problem any more.2,53,51,5The conflicts between headenders and tailenders, and the ignorant use of the resource, are the two main reasons for inefficient utilization of the resources. This situation no longer persists due to adequate water supply after WECS-IIMI project and establishment of water mill.lowThe measurement of discharge shows that there is enough water in the source for irrigating monsoon paddy and winter wheat in the proposed 15ha Khet. The cause of inefficiency is the overflooding of water by headender.Chhetries, Tamang.6,51,5The contribution of labor for emergency work (headwork repair) is based on the land holding size of farmers. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for operation and maintenance. Now day-to-day maintenance work is being done by the water mill owner.1,51,51,53,5Insufficient management: no organization for responsible operation and maintenance. Low potential food production because of limiting and inefficient use of water. Cooperation relation of upper canal (Subedar Ko Kulo). But now, the water mill owner has maintained the canal and has provided adequate water after WECS-IIMI irrigation improvement work.2902500,711,50,51,55160040001200800011000011000015010030101500005061220,5305,51830,5-1
104,111987-23The canal was constructed to irrigate the rainfed Khet in Ward No.5 at Thamlangtar Dhap Village Panchayat. The construction was proposed and planned by six Banjara families.12,5-11,54,43,4-22,42,4-11,4-1-11,51,4-2-2-22,5-21,41,5-11,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,42,3-14,45,5-1-22,430,42,450,52,51,5-1-2-2-2-2-2-21124,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,4Landslides and inefficient management have caused limiting use of water.-1The author compared the potential cropping intensity with present cropping intensity. The improvement of management is said to be the way to fully utilize the potential.Kshetri, Sanyasi, Newar and Damai .44,51,5When more than one day is needed, the contribution of labourers depends on the land holding size of farmers. The contribution of labour for emergency repair work is in the same pattern as that for routine maintenance work. A sum of Rs.6000 (US$268: 85/86 year) was collected by 20 farmers for constructing the canal. An informal leadership has been provided by Mr. S.B. Banjara for O&M. O&M from headwork to Ghatta is the responsiblity of the Ghatta owner.3,52,43,41,3Inefficient management: there is no formal organization responsible for operation and management. Farmers' inactiveness (laziness) due to the expectation of getting some aid from the government. Ignoring the participation of users for improvement and extension of the canal. Only operated by one informal leadership.150150-1-1-1-1-120050050200500502100002100002500005025000050-11230,5246,53075,5-1
104,211991-22The canal was constructed to irrigate the rainfed Khet.The construction was proposed and planned by six Banjara families. After WECS-IIMI improvement work, changes in operational rules have occured.30,51,51,52,52,52,52,53,51,51,51,5-11,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5250,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,54,5-23,5-21,5-2-274,53,51,5-1-2-2-2-2-2-21124,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Landslides and inefficient management have caused limiting use of water. But now, most parts of the canal are improved by IIMI/WECS.lowThe author compared the potential cropping intensity with present cropping intensity. The improvement of management is said to be the way to fully utilize the potential.Kshetri, Sanyasi, Newar and Damai .56,52,5When more than one day is needed, the contribution of labourers depends on the land holding size of farmers. The contribution of labour for emergency repair work is in the same pattern as that for routine maintenance work. A sum of Rs.6000 (US$268: 85/86 year) was collected by 20 farmers for constructing the canal. An informal leadership has been provided by Mr. S.B. Banjara for O&M. O&M from headwork to Ghatta is the responsiblity of the Ghatta owner. Equal participation for the 1st day of work, and on land area basis from the second day.1,51,52,53,5Inefficient management: there is no formal organization responsible for operation and management. Farmers' inactiveness (laziness) due to the expectation of getting some aid from the government. Ignoring the participation of users for improvement and extension of the canal. Only operated by one informal leadership. WECS/IIMI helped in forming a management committee which look after O&M of the system.215,5215,50,4120,51,50,51505004515050045110000110000250505401505054051230,5246,53075,5-1
105,111987-22The system was constructed by the collective efforts of six beneficiaries in order to irrigate their lands on Dovan Swar Fant.5,5-11,53,4-22,41,42,51,41,41,41,41,51,4-1-1-12,4-21,51,575,41,5-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,5-1-1-2-1-22,515,51,56,51,51,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21125,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,5Efficient management can lead to improvement of present system and its extension.-1-1Brahmin, Kshetri .54,51,3For headwork repair after a heavy flood, also one person per household.2,52,53,43,3Low conveyance capacity. No formal organization.300300-1-1-1-1-1510000005100000051000051000051000000510000006,91350,5135,52700,5-1
105,211991-22The system was constructed by the collective efforts of six beneficiaries in order to irrigate their lands on Dovan Swar Fant.12,51,51,52,52,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,51,51,52,52,52,52,5-21,51,5100,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,43,55,5-2-22,5-11,511,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21125,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Efficient management has resulted to the improvement of system and its extension after IIMI/WECS intervention.-1-1Chhetri, Tamang.56,51,3For headwork repair after a heavy flood, also one person per household.1,51,52,53,5Canal capacity has now been increased and canal has been further extended tail end of the command area.200,5200,5120,51,50,51000010010000100110000110000110000001100000041350,5135,52700,5-1
106,111987-26At the beginning, the Magar and Brahmin community was in harmony with other communities. They constructed the system to get water.160,5-11,53,4-23,42,42,52,41,51,3-11,41,3-1-1-12,4-21,41,4800,31,4-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,42,42,42,4-2-1-22,4-1-1800,56,54,41,5-2-2-2-210000.5-21126,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,4Inactiveness of appropriators and inefficient management lead to limiting use of water.-1-1Gurung, Tamang, and Newar4,5-1One Katuwal is employed by the collective effort of users. His duty is to inform about the nature of damage and calls all the concerned farmers. He receives annually one pathi of grains from each user as his remuneration.2,32,42,43,3Insufficient management: no formal organization for O&M. Low potential food production because the canal is of high altitude, no possibility of increasing the cropping intensity. Also no possibility of changing the cropping pattern.190190-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1310000310000394000639400062,290,545,5180,5-1
106,211991-22At the beginning, the Magar and Brahmin community was in harmony with other communities. They constructed the system to get water. Rules were changed considerably after WECS/IIMI improved the system.143,51,51,52,52,52,52,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-12,5-21,51,5600,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,53,53,5-2-1-21,5-2-2183,54,51,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51126,2-2-2-22,5-21,5-21,5Inactiveness of appropriators and inefficient management lead to limiting use of water. Appropriators are inactive due to lack of knowledge, and political fractions among users.-1-1Gurung, Tamang, Chhetries,and Newars.4,51,5One Katuwal is employed by the collective effort of users. His duty is to inform about the nature of damage and calls all the concerned farmers. He receives annually one pathi of grains from each user as his remuneration.2,51,51,53,5Insufficient management: no formal organization for O&M. Low potential food production because the canal is of high altitude, no possibility of increasing the cropping intensity. Also no possibility of changing the cropping pattern. There is now informal organization but still only two crops can be taken due to high altitutde.194,5200,50,820,51,55,5100001001000010011000011000019400061943030490,545,5180,5-1
107,111987-22The canal was constructed to irrigate Khet areas some of which were previously irrigated by Majha Ko Kulo.35,5-11,43,4-2-11,42,5-11,5-1-1-14,3-11,4-11,4-11,51,5225,51,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,4-1-15,4-1-12,5100,43,481,53,51,4-1-2-2-2-2-2-21127,1-2-2-22,4-2-1-11,4A number of leakages leads to limited use of water. This makes changing cropping pattern difficult.-1-1-14,51,4Mr. Ghana Bahadur Khatri mobilized the labor at the beginning of construction work. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for O&M. During the construction work, 3600 man-days of labor were mobilized In the same year, about 1000 man-days of labor were mobilized for improvement. In 1986, 3000 labor were mobilized for emergency maintenance. Mr. Ghana Bahadur Khatri tried to keep records of labor mobilization, but not properly. Farmers need to repair the landslide zone frequently after heavy rain. The contribution of labor for such work is based on land-holding size.2,43,33,31,3Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance. Low conveyance capacity of the system because of a number of leakage.255255-1-1-1-1-121000000210000002034662034662861400028614000-194,547,5187,5-1
107,211991-22The canal was constructed to irrigate Khet areas some of which were previously irrigated by Majha Ko Kulo. Some changes in operational rules were introduced during WECS/IIMI irrigation improvement wor35,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,54,51,51,5-11,55,51,51,5200,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,53,5-23,5-21,5-2-260,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21127,2-2-2-21,3The contracting tenants have been evicted by the landlords due to fear of tenancy rights, thus the arrangement if any will now be share cropping.1,31,31,4A number of leakages led to limited use of water. This made changing cropping pattern difficult. Most of the critical zones are improved by WECS/IIMI in 1988low-1Brahmin, Chhetries, Tamang, Kami.4,51,5Mr. Ghana Bahadur Khatri mobilized the labor at the beginning of construction work. The beneficiaries have never raised the cash for O&M. During the construction work, 3600 man-days of labor were mobilized In the same year, about 1000 man-days of labor were mobilized for improvement. In 1986, 3000 labor were mobilized for emergency maintenance. Mr. Ghana Bahadur Khatri tried to keep records of labor mobilization, but not properly. Farmers need to repair the landslide zone frequently after heavy rain. The contribution of labor for such work is based on land-holding.(usually household basis).2,52,52,53,5(a)Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance. Low conveyance capacity of the system because of a number of leakage. (b) The management committee is responsible for the O&M of the system.200,5250,50,440,750,5-1-1200001002005005011000011000017614010015000500594,547,5187,5-1
108,111987-24-146,4-11,43,4-2-11,42,4-1-11,31,3-1-1-1-1-11,4-11,51,5225,41,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,4-1-15,5-1-12,5100,43,493,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21128,1-2-2-21,5About 33 households who participated in the reconstruction of the canal in 1985 enjoy primary water rights. About 60 other households are using the same canal at the same time, and have secondary water rights.-1-11,4Technical factors such as leakage are the main reasons of limited use of water.-1-1Brahmin, Kshetri, Tamang and Newar Communities .54,51,3Emergency maintenance work depends on the farm size. During the reconstruction work (1985), 1500 man-days were mobilized.2,32,43,33,3Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance. Low conveyance capacity due to a lot of leakage.300300-1-1-1-1-120-1-10020-1-1002100002100-1-12100000021000000-1105,421,5210,5-1
108,211991-22Some changes in operational rules were introduced after WECS/IIMI program in 1988.46,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,5-11,55,51,51,5225,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,53,5-23,5-21,5-2-2144,44,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21128,2-2-2-22,5About 33 households who participated in the reconstruction of the canal in 1985 enjoy primary water rights. About 60 other households are using the same canal at the same time, and have secondary water rights.2,53,51,5Technical factors such as leakage are the main reasons of limited use of water. Most of the critical zones are improved by WECS/IIMI in 1988.low-1Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang and Newar Communities .54,51,5Emergency maintenance work depends on the farm size. During the reconstruction work (1985), 1500 man-days were mobilized.1,51,51,53,5(a)Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance. Low conveyance capacity due to a lot of leakage. (b) The management committee was formed in 1988 is responsible for the O&M of the system.230,52300,651,250,51,5-12006004020060040110000110000140100203014010020305,5105,421,5210,5-1
109,111987-26-135,5-11,53,43,43,42,33,41,52,31,51,5-11,5-12,5-12,5-21,51,585,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,3-14,3-2-1-22,4-1-1-1-11,5-1-2-2-2-2-2-21129,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-11,4The structure of the canal is in bad shape. Also, the Ghattas on the off-track of the canal are stealing water. The result is the limiting use of the water resources.-1-1-14,51,5Generally, the headwork is repaired by the owner of the Ghatta, so the beneficiaries need to repair the canal towards the end of the Ghatta. No raised cash for O&M. The informal leadership changes from person to person to mobilize the labor. Emergency maintenance work is 150-200 man-days on the basis of land holding size.3,33,33,42,3Insufficient management: there is no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance . Stealing problem by the Ghattas owners on the off-track of the canal: limit of water rights of Ghatta owners. No rule or norm to penalize.271271-1-1-1-1-150085015500850155100005100005850001558500015-1300,560,5600,5-1
109,211988-26Minor changes in operational rules were introduced after WECS/IIMI irrigation improvement program in 1988.33,51,51,51,52,52,52,53,51,51,51,51,51,51,5-22,5-22,5-21,51,550,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,53,54,5-23,5-21,5-2-281,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21129,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5The structure of the canal was in bad shape. Also, the Ghattas were stealing water.The result was the limiting use of the water resources. Now the shape of the canal is just reverse after 1988.low-1Brahmin, Chhetri4,51,5Generally, the headwork is repaired by the owner of the Ghatta, so the beneficiaries need to repair the canal towards the end of the Ghatta. No raised cash for O&M. The informal leadership changes from person to person to mobilize the labor. Emergency maintenance work is 150-200 man-days on the basis of land holding size. After WECS/IIMI improvement program, the emergency labor required is reduced significantly.1,51,51,53,5(1) There was insufficient management: no formal organization e for operation and maintenance.Stealing problem by the Ghattas owners: limit of water rights of Ghatta owners. (2)After WECS/IIMI irrigation improvement program, the canal has been expanded, and improved. The canal is in excellent condition. Now there is no need of intensive management. Labor requirement has reduced nearly to half for emergency management.295,5270,50,431,250,51,52,5210085052008501511000011000018500150185000156300,560,5600,5-1
111,111987-2-1-130,5-11,43,3-23,32,33,41,42,41,41,41,41,4-12,4-12,5-21,41,5200,5-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,4-1-15,4-1-22,530,42,4100,53,51,51,3-2-2-2-2-2-21131,1-2-2-21,5The tailenders are not getting sufficient water. Hence the productivity of land has been decreased.1,3-11,4The poor structures of the canal and the headwork result in low conveyance capacity. Also the management over water distribution is inefficient.-1-1Tamang, Sanyasi, Brahmin, and Kshetri4,31,4For emergency work, 200 man-days annually. For emergency work in 1968, 400 man-days of laborers were mobilized. Five years ago, a committee with 7 members in the chairmanship of Mr. Lila Nath Giri was formed for canal renovation work. The tax was levied on the basis of farm size.3,33,33,31,4Inefficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance.200200-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11100001100002830170028301700-180,340,5120,5-1
111,211991-2-1-131,51,51,41,52,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5200,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,53,53,55,5-2-21,5-2-262,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21131,2-2-2-22,5The tailenders are not getting sufficient water. Hence the productivity of land has been decreased. The situation is reverse after WECS-IIMI improvement program.1,5-21,5The poor structures of the canal and the headwork result in low conveyance capacity. Also the management over water distribution is inefficient. The situation is reverse after WECS-IIMI irrigation improvement program.-1Input-output ratio, max. utilization of available resource has been made.Tamang, Sanyasi, Brahmin, and Kshetri4,53,5For emergency work, 200 man-days annually. For emergency work in 1968, 400 man-days of laborers were mobilized. Five years ago, a committee with 7 members in the chairmanship of Mr. Lila Nath Giri was formed for canal renovation work. The tax was levied on the basis of farm size.1,51,51,53,5Inefficient management: no formal organization was responsible for operation and maintenance. Now, there IS an organization for O&M.270,52700,5320,51,53,511020400501102040001100001100001800200015005000-180,340,5120,5-1
112,111987-2-1-125,5-11,43,3-23,32,33,41,42,41,41,41,41,4-12,4-12,5-21,31,5200,5-12,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,4-1-15,5-1-22,540,42,580,53,51,51,3-2-2-2-2-2-21132,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-11,4The poor structure of the system and the inefficient management of the system result in limited use of water.-1-1Tamang, Sanyasi, and Brahmin4,21,5For emergency maintenance work, 450 man-days annually.2,33,33,31,3(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance.220220-1-1-1-1-130200080302000801100001100002600400026004000-1165,341,5230,5-1
112,211991-2-1-137,51,51,51,52,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,54,51,51,5200,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,53,55,5-1-21,5-2-265,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21132,2-2-2-22,5-1-2-11,5The poor structure of the system and the inefficient management of the system resulted in limited use of water. After WECS/IIMI improvement program, maximum utilization of water has been made.lowMaximum utilization of available resource has been made.Tamang, Sanyasi, and Brahmin4,53,5For emergency maintenance work, 450 man-days annually.1,51,51,53,5(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization responsible for operation and maintenance. (2) Now there is an organization for O&M.235,52200,61,50,51,52,511520250601020008011000011000016010052526004000-1165,341,5230,5-1
115,111987-23-116,5-11,52,3-22,32,43,51,42,41,41,41,41,4-12,4-12,4-21,41,5200,51,42,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,4-1-1-2-1-22,520,41,450,42,41,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21135,1-2-2-21,5The users who contributed labor during its construction have primary water rights, others have secondary rights. The latter obtain water by requesting the people having primary rights.-1-11,4The farmers do not use the irrigation system during monsoon and there is frequent land sliding.-1-1Brahmin, Kshetri, Tamang, Kami and Damai .56,51,5Not much emergency maintenance.2,42,42,43,3Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance. Low productivity because of natural climate and landslides.300300-1-1-1-1-1210000002100000021000021000021000000210000007,140,530,5100,5-1
115,211991-23After WECS/IIMI improvement, the canal is also operational during monsoon season. The management committee was also set up.16,51,51,52,53,51,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,53,51,51,5-21,54,52,51,5300,51,42,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,53,54,55,54,5-21,5-2-288,52,41,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21135,2-2-2-21,5The users who contributed labor during its construction have primary water rights, others have secondary rights. The latter obtain water by requesting the people having primary rights.-1-11,4The farmers did not use the irrigation system during monsoon and there was frequent land sliding. After IIMI-WECS intervention, even mionsoon irrigation is practiced.-1-1Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang, Kami and Damai .54,53,5Not much emergency maintenance.2,42,42,43,3Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance. Low productivity because of natural climate and landslides. After IIMI-WECS intervention, this problem is overcome.295,5285-1-1-1-1-1110107505110075015125750125750260100300260100300640,530,5100,5-1
116,111987-23Farmers constructed the canal to irrigate winter crops.10,5-11,42,4-22,33,33,41,42,41,41,41,41,4-12,4-12,4-21,41,5-11,42,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,5-1-15,5-1-22,560,53,5100,53,51,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21136,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-11,4Not being able to operate the canal during monsoon seasons and the problem of seepage are two major causes of low productivity of land.-1-1Brahmin, Kshetri, Tamang, Damai and Kami4,51,5About 100 man-days are required for emergency maintenance.2,42,42,41,3Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance. Social problem of heterogenous ethnic group is no cooperation.280280-1-1-1-1-1580205802021002100210021006,755,438,5150,5-1
116,211991-22Farmers constructed the canal to irrigate winter crops. A management committee was formed in 1988 which has been operating the system for 12 months.33,51,51,52,52,51,51,53,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,53,52,52,51000,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,54,52,52,54,52,515,51,5116,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,500001.51,51136,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Not being able to operate the canal during monsoon seasons and the problem of seepage are two major causes of low productivity of land. After WECS/IIMI improvement, the situation is just reverse.lowhigh input-output ratio.Brahmin, Kshetri, Tamang, Damai and Kami1,52,5About 580 man-days were required for emergency maintenance. They have good records on labor and other resource mobilization.1,51,51,51,5Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance. Social problem of heterogenous ethnic group is no cooperation. (2) Management committee established in 1988 by WECS/IIMI has solved all these and other sorts of problems.300,5300,50,320,51,55,530010000300100001100001100002601003002601003006,555,438,5150,5-1
118,111987-2-1After the Mathillo Chapleti Kulo was closed, farmers of Baguwa village built this Kulo.-1-11,52,42,42,42,42,51,52,41,51,51,5-1-12,5-12,5-22,41,5-11,52,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,41,4-12,4-2-1-22,5-1-1125,44,41,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21138,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,4The insufficient water flow and lack of effective management are the two reasons for limiting use of water.-1-1Chhetri, Newar, Brahmin and Sharki communities4,51,3The maintenance is not carried out regularly. Only when a serious damage requiring more than 4 to 5 man-days is caused mostly by a landslide the farmers are summoned to the necessary emergency repair work.4,43,42,42,3(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance.250-1-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-12-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-1-114,45,560,5-1
118,211991-2-1After the Mathillo Chapleti Kulo was closed, farmers of Baguwa village built this Kulo. The management committee was set up by WECS-IIMI.23,51,51,52,52,52,52,53,53,51,51,53,51,53,5-2-21,51,53,52,51,5150,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,52,53,52,52,5-21,5-2-1125,54,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21138,2-2-2-21,5-2-23,51,5The insufficient water flow and insufficient maintenance are the two reasons for limiting use of water.-1-1Chhetri, Newar, Brahmin and Sharki communities.54,51,5The maintenance is not carried out regularly. Only when a serious damage requiring more than 4 to 5 man-days is caused mostly by a landslide the farmers are summoned to the necessary emergency repair work.2,52,52,52,5Management committee is actively working on maintenance management and irrigation management.300,5300,50,31,50,51,53,521000000210000001100001100001100000011000000614,45,560,5-1
119,111987-22-15,3-11,41,51,51,51,53,41,4-11,41,41,41,4-12,5-12,5-21,51,5-1-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,42,42,3-15,3-1-21,3-2-210,51,51,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21139,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,4The major constraint is the ownership of land. The psychological fear of being driven away of tenant farmers lowers their incentive to develop the available land.-1-1Majhis, Basnets6,5-2The beneficiary farmers, being small in number, have never had difficulty in mobilizing the labor for operation and maintenance.1,51,51,53,4(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for organization and maintenance. (2) Constraint of low potential production: lack of ownership of the land.300300-16,3100,4-160,41100110011001100110011005,590,545,5180,5-1
119,211991-22The canal capacity was greatly improved after WECS/IIMI improvement program. The management committee was set up by WECA-IIMI.5,31,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,5-11,51,51,51,5-22,5-21,54,51,51,5100,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,52,52,55,54,5-21,5-2-216,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21139,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,4The major constraint is the ownership of land. The psychological fear of being driven away of tenant farmers lowers their incentive to develop the available land.-2increase in the cropping intensity and changes in the cropping practices.Majhis, Chhetries4,51,5The beneficiary farmers, being small in number, have never had difficulty in mobilizing the labor for operation and maintenance.1,51,51,53,5Constraint of low potential production: lack of ownership of the land was before WECS/IIMI intervention. Now the farmers have intensified their land under cultivation.3003000,546,50,53,57,5110000001100000011000011000011000000110000006,590,545,5180,5-1
120,111987-23-135,5-11,43,43,43,41,43,44,42,41,31,31,33,4-1-1-12,4-21,41,4850,31,42,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,3-1-2-1-22,5100,43,4150,54,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21140,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,4Inefficient management and land slides led to limiting use of water resources.-1-1Newar, Brahmin, Majhi4,52,4In 1966, US$143 (Rs 3,000) was collected by the three Majhi families from the absentee. After that, they have not collected cash. In 1986, 800 to 900 man-days of labor were mobilized for maintenance. Almost all Newars and Brahmins prefer paying cash instead of going to repair the canal.3,43,43,43,3(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization is responsible for operation and maintenance.270270-1-1-1-1-123333332333333210021001831718317-1810,4405,51215,5-1
120,211990-23-135,51,51,52,52,51,51,53,52,51,51,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,54,52,54,5200,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,52,54,52,53,53,52,5100,43,457,552,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21140,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Inefficient management and land slides led to limiting use of water resources.-1-1Newar, Brahmin, Majhi4,52,5In 1966, US$143 (Rs 3,000) was collected by the three Majhi families from the absentee. After that, they have not collected cash. In 1986, 800 to 900 man-days of labor were mobilized for maintenance. Almost all Newars and Brahmins prefer paying cash instead of going to repair the canal. (3) In 1990, a farmer established a water turbine on the track of canal. Now, he has been maintaining the main canal system.1,51,51,53,5(1) Insufficient management: no formal organization was responsible for operation and maintenance.(2) Now an organization has been established after improvement program of WECS/IIMI which is functioning well.300,52700,320,750,51,50,511000000233037030110000110000180100100183170007810,4405,51215,5-1
121,111987-2-1-130,5-11,42,42,42,42,43,4-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,4-11,43,4-11,3-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,42,42,3-15,3-1-12,5150,54,5250,55,54,31,42,51,52,51,5100001,51141,1-2-2-21,5The tailenders who only enjoy secondary water rights.-1-11,4A great deal of leakage, stealing of water and inefficient management are creating the problem of inefficient use of water resources.-1-1Tamang, Brahmin, Kshetri and Newar4,51,315 years ago (1972), a committee with sixteen members, including the chairman, was formed for rehabilitation and improvement. After that, the committee did not function. Instead, a system of hiring two persons for the routine maintenance of the canal was introduced. All emergency works were also to be done by these two hired persons.2,32,32,31,3No rule or norm to protect several problems (water right disputes, stealing, absentee from operation and maintenance). Financial problems for emergency repair work. Lack of strong formal organization.260260-1-1-1-1-1260404604011001100210021006,380,353,5160,5-1
121,211991-23Improvement in the system in 1972 and 1988 has brought some changes in composition and appropriation of resources.35,51,51,52,52,52,52,53,54,51,51,51,5-14,51,51,51,51,54,52,54,5120,53,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,52,54,54,5-2-22,5150,54,5141,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51141,2-2-2-21,5The tailenders who only enjoy secondary water rights.-1-11,4A great deal of leakage, stealing of water and inefficient management were creating the problem of inefficient use of water resources. But irrigation system improvement by WECS/IIMI has solved problem to a greater extent.lowinput:output ratio high.Tamang, Brahmin, Chhetri4,51,515 years ago (1972), a committee with sixteen members, including the chairman, was formed for rehabilitation and improvement. After that, the committee did not function. Instead, a system of hiring two persons for the routine maintenance of the canal was introduced. All emergency works were also to be done by these two hired persons. It has been reduced to one pale after WECS/IIMI improvement.1,51,51,53,5No rule or norm protected several problems (water right disputes, stealing, absentee from operation and maintenance). Financial problems for emergency repair work. Lack of strong formal organization until the WECS/IIMI intervention. Now after WECS/IIMI intervention, the situation has been improved.300,5220,50,251,50,51,51,5110000002002008011000011000017010020011000000780,520,5200,5-1
122,111986-22-1147,52,3-1-13,32,3-12,3-1-1-1-1-12,3-1-1-11,35,31,31,3-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,32,3-14,3-1-1-11090,57,53,31,5-1-1-1-1122222,31142,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,3-1-1-1Pahadi1,52,5The entire responsibility lies in the farmers themselves for regular and emergency maintenance. At every flood, 60-80 man-days are needed. For maintenance, the farmes contribute voluntary labor.2,32,32,31,3(1) Local materials such as stones and tree branches are available for construction of intake and retaining structures. (2) Absence of conflicts. (3) Existence of indigenous system for irrigation management. (4) Migration from other districts and local politics is gradually eroding self-help tendency of the farmers. (5) System connected by fair weather seasonal motorable road.1901901,986,679,5-1-1331505015050240501024050104,476,5-1-1-1
123,211991-26-2.87,52,31,53,52,54,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,5850,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,53,51,54,55,52,512,51,588,53,53,51,51,51,51,51,500010.51,51143,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Increased use of improved seeds, vegetable cultivation, milking buffaloes.-2Increased in productivity and Cropping Intensity.Brahmins, Tharu.1,52,5Maintenance work is divided on the basis on LATHI, i.e., a farmer having one BIGHA of land contributes labor for one LATHI length of canal.2,52,53,51,5(1) In the headend, water is allocated according to the size of land. In the tailend, water is allocated as in normal times. (2) Less chance of conflict among farmers due to the dispute-solving role of traditional organizations. (3) Convenient transportation between intake and village for maintenance. Market (in Gharahi) is located in a good place for farming inputs and outputs. (4) Local traditional rules of electing the 'Aguwa' for allocation and distribution of water is quite effective. (5) The sense of ownership of farmers is good. (6) The intake site selected by MPLD is not stable.1901902,55,57,51,50,511001100250401025040102,21-1-115-1
124,1-11986-1-140,51,3-12,35,35,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-12,5-11,3-11,35,31,31,31200,32,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,32,3-14,3-1-1-1-1-1-11,3-1-1-1-1-2-21144,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-22,3-1-1-1Pahadi6,5-1For labor contribution, a farmer can come himself or he can hire somebody to work on his behalf.3,32,33,31,3No water allocation and distribution systems in operation. Efficient use of local materials. The main market centre at Bijuwar has several agricultural support institutions. Efficient users' organization. Possibility of water conflict exists between two systems if the canal is not maintained to carry out full design discharge.200200-1-1-1-10,5221100110018515185153,41500,5-1-1-1
125,1119862-130,31,31,3-13,33,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-12,3-11,3-11,3-11,31,4-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,32,3-14,3-1-1-151,53,53,31,31,31,31,31,3122221,31145,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-22,3-1-1-1Pahadi1,52,3For the construction of the CARE/NEPAL and ABD/NEPAL irrigation project, the farmers holding one Bighas provided 80 man-days. All these records are kept by the Aguwa. Records of 3/90 showed farmers contributed the equivalent of 18,000 NRs for reconstruction. A person with 2 bighas of land required to supply one labourer every day of required labor for maintenance. Org has an Aguwa who is responsible for org & supervising labor mobilization and keeps record of work records of individual farmers.2,32,33,31,4Active extension services were provided to increase agricultural production. Agricultural credit is available. Traditional farmers' irrigation organization exists & water users committeee formed 7/15/87 to represent all 57 families. Lessmaintenance efforts should be required if all the provisions made in the design are implemented. Farmers' sense of ownership of the system is high. Only minor conflicts among farmers observers.19319313-1-103-1-145-1-13-1-145-1-1155-1-1155-1-1235-1-155-1235-1-155-12,6-1-1-1-1
127,111986-2240,52,51,54,54,54,52,32,3-11,3-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,4150,51,32,3-11,31,31,31,31,31,3-11,31,32,4-1-2-1-2-1-1-140,52,51,41,3-2-2-2-2-2-22147,1-2-2-22,3-22,32,12Weakly developed in this regard. The system has little formal organization and poorly maintained. The author only notes there is an absence of conflict and crops seem to be good despite paucity of water.-1-1Mayar, Chettris, Brahmins, Sarkis and Kamis4,52,4Emergency maintenance is needed at frequent intervals at the intake site. Attendence records are not usually kept because the number of involved is so small. Can make up missed labor day the next day. Can pay for labor to take one's place.2,32,43,51,3No agricultural support institution in the village. Water distribution on the rotation basis. No perennial water source (Khahare Khola): inadequate water. No frequent maintenance of the system is needed except at the intake. Positive effect of intervention. Has lists of strengths and weaknesses at the end of the article. Says crop yields are high, there is an absence of conflict, no frequent maintenance is required and waer is adequate at the source. Says 'proper use of investment made can hardly be justified and canals are not big enough.200,4200,41-1-1-1-1400001005000010021000021000031000000310000006,545152000-1
128,111986-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF5,52,31,32,32,33,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-1-1-2-2-21,35,31,31,3-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,3-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,31,3-2-2-2-2-2-21148,1-2-2-20,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UF-2-22,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFPahadi and Tibeto-Burman6,5-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF3,32,32,31,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UF2002000,3-1-1-10,5-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-111000011000019010000190100006,4-1-1-1
130,31199119957Twelve years ago there was a great flood. The intake and a portion of canal was washed away. Before the flood this was a reliable source of irrigation.800,52,51,53,53,55,51,53,52,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,54,52,52,59000,42,52,5-21,52,52,51,52,54,51,5-22,52,52,53,52,51,55,52,530,52,5300,55,53,51,57,52,57,52,510010.51,58150,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5System works well. Nested interprise. 8 subgroups get together to repair.Transaction cost lowEfficientTharu and Pahadi1,52,5They have 2 standards of labor mobilization: (1) Within the village, based on amount of land, (2) Among the villages, based on the amount of water allocated.2,52,52,51,5-1130,5120,516710,51,512,530000100300001001100002802001150015702100010801,570,530,3200,5-1
131,121986-28-1340,52,41,42,32,32,41,42,42,4-12,4-12,42,4-11,5-11,57,51,41,4-11,4-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,43,4-1-12,34,3-1-1-1-1-1-11,51,4-2-2-2-210000.3-21151,1-2-2-21,4The tailenders at the Gorkhe Kulo and Kwadi Kulo complain of water shortage.-1-11,4Water is abundant. The construction of the system is relatively good.-1-1Brahmin, Chettri, Magar, Sanyasi, Dhami, Kumale, Sarki, Sunar, Dami and Newar1,54,4Measures to upkeep the canal for reliable water supply in all five systems share the cleaning of the waterway and the construction of diversion structures at the intake site. The routine or preventive type of maintenance are carried out twice a year. Rani and Gorkhe Kulo are most effective in mobilizing labor.2,42,42,41,4Economic effect after construction: the introduction of a second paddy as the third crop from the month of August. Better water use and on-farm activities are not possible in the system because they do not feel the need for co-ordination among the various systems, and separate water committees were developed in each system. Need to provide river training works where syphons are constructed. No fixed rule for the share of water neither among the systems nor within the system. Water is applied on a continuous basis.195,5195,50,441,5-11,3-14-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1-1-14000800000-1
132,21199119862-2340,52,51,53,53,52,52,53,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,51000,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,51,54,55,52,540,52,5500,56,53,51,52,51,52,51,511000.51,51152,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Increase in productivity, cropping intensity and use of improved vegetable seeds.LowUse of improved seeds for both cereals and vegetables.Pahadi and Tharu4,54,5No one knows who will maintain the system. There is no established procedures for maintenance. Flood maintenance works are needed to carry out up to 10 times during wet season. For every flood, more the 100 people need to contribute their labor.2,52,52,51,5Due to a water scarcity system, proper water management will be an important task after the completion of the project. Advantage of the well-established existing farmers' Panch Kulo Organization. Agricultural extension service available. Conflict possibility within the system because of less availability of water and frequent inter-mixing of existing farmers' field channels with the new canal. No established procedures, schedule and budget allocated for maintenance by the DOI. No farmers' confidence of extension service.213,5196,50,671010,51,52,532025073300100901901001901002500036143500036145,7-1-1-1-1
134,211991-22-28,51,51,53,53,52,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,54,51,51,5300,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,52,54,52,55,52,530,32,5255,55,56,51,51,51,51,51,501000.51,51154,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Use of improved and new cereals and vegetables.-2Increased output of cereals and vegetables.Pahadi, Chhetri, Tharu, Brahmin, Kami, Damai1,52,5-24,53,53,52,5The coding of this and other sheets are done based on the rules of the existing old system and rules formulated by the farmers for future governance of this system (available on the written form). The system was completed in 1987 and farmers have been irrigating their fields using two branch canals. But one branch canal does not function due to design defects caused by technicians. Heavy erosion is occurring and farmer channels run parallel on top of present system where government has built aqueducts.200,5200,50,61730,51,531500085315000851752501752502750010152750010156-1150,5-1-1
135,11198619862-1301,51,51,41,41,52,42,42,51,54,31,52,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,5-13,42,5-11,51,51,51,51,51,51,51,41,42,44,33,42,55,52,5-1-1-1-13,51,3-12,3-12,31101014155,1248.1249.12501,4Artunga has an irregular and unpredictable supply of water. On the other hand, irrigation is new there, there's an extention of the system. The state intervened.2,52,51,5Author concerned with development of property through investment, and reinvestment to maintain them. The system works as follows. 'The relationship among sub-commands and among individual irrigators within these aras largely centers on irrigation property rights rather than other forms of social relations, e.g., kinship, patron-client relationship, or caste.'Author notes the ineffectiveness of state intervention.-1Magar, Brahmin (Pahadi)6,52,4Maintenance system is operated by the irrigators. One committee exists. MAMULATE for ordinary mobilization, JHARA for immediate large mobilization, and MAHAJHARA for emergency mobilization. At present, Mr. Bir Bahadur Saru is taking initiative to maintain this canal. There are 4 service areas, each with different rules. 2 areas, Taplek and Pokhariya, rarely contribute labor. Chherlung, the area that takes almost 50% of the water, provides most of the labor. Artunga does not always get word that it must contribute: it is remote from the other areas and 8km from production resource.2,42,42,52,5Water transactions for buying and selling water. Water shares are distributed among the members on the basis of investment made during the time of construction of the system. This system has to be united for resource mobilization of manpower on short notice (p.17). Rotational water distribution (p.23). Water allocation on the basis of original investment or purchased shares. Of the 4 areas served, only 1 area regularly provides labor for maintenance. The system is only water stressed in Artunga.300,5200,5-1-1-1-1-1100100003-1-1-1-1-11100002100001100000031000000-1-1-1-1-1
136,1119885134,52,51,52,32,32,31,42,5-11,5-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,351,52,4-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,3-12,5-15,32,5-1-1366,55,54,31,421,5-1-1212222,31156,1-2-2-22-2-22-1Government intervention has increased transaction costs.-1Pahadi4,52,3Cash is mobilized on class of land area. Maintenance system is operated by the irrigators. Two tiers, central and village communities, exist. The number of people working ranges from 50 up to 375 in a single day (Pradhan, 1988). Women also work. Pay also in proportion to their yields not to work. Labor must be contributed in winter.2,32,32,32,3Distribution is based on water shares determined on the basis of investment made during construction of the physical structures. Rotation water distribution (p.23). Water allocation or purchased shares (p.36) or time (p.37). Considerable labor inputs for water acquisition. Author says the system provides 'options and choices.' People who do not want to work can pay to avoid it.250250-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15100005100005-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
137,1119875-14500,51,31,32,3-22,33,32,3-11,3-1-1-12,31,31,3-11,55,31,3-113230,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,32,34,42,3-14,3-1-1-11400,57,53,31,3-1-1-1-1222222,31157,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,3-1-1The cost of operation and maintenance is very low, Rs47.00 per hectare, when compared to most farmer managed and govenrment systems.Tharu and Pahadi6,52,5External resources were collected: Rs 75,000 grant from DOI in 1968 and Rs 65,000 grant from Kailali District Panchayat in 1985. Internal resources were collected in 1986: 13,230 mandays, Rs 31,255 water tax, 300 of bullock carts. Women contributed to labor mobilization for emergency repair. Households without an able male, or only one, are exempted from contributing labor and must instead pay cash on the basis of their landholdings.2,31,32,31,3Two levels of organization (central and second) are linked by Bhalmansa (village chief). The central committee is to ensure adequate resource mobilization for water acquisition and water distribution. Even if there is one diversion on the Kateni river upstream from the Tedhi, there is no interaction between that system and Tedhi/Gurgi system. The continued reuse of drainage water improves the efficiency of water use in the system. One method for conflict resolution is to initiate a rotation distribution system. Farmers themselves adjust an adequate water supply instead of a committee.19519521014,21,2-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-119010019010022500750225007504,33702104780-1
138,211991-27Water Users Group was formed in 1990 and repair/maintenance work was handed over to the WUG for one year. But again it came into the hands of the Department of Irrigation.320,51,51,53,54,51,52,52,53,51,53,52,51,51,52,51,52,51,57,51,54,51440,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,55,5-2-22,5250,55,5500,55,56,51,54,51,51,51,501000.51,51158,2-2-2-22,5-22,51,51,5Metropolitan area is increasing therefore land value is increasing.-2improved input use increased. Size of holding decreased.Pahad and Tibeto Burman5,51,51 in canal maintenance is the responsibility of the District Irrigation Unit. Undertaken with a contractor. No participation of farmers in maintenance activities. Phewa does not have a separate maintenance budget, rather, the Western Regional Directorate of DIHM (or DOI) receives a lump sum for all their irrigation projects, and a certain portion of that is given to Phewa for maintenance.3,52,53,51,5Low cropping intensity because of maldistribution of water, the effects of animals grazing out of control, and the lack of economic incentives. The high percolation rate results in a high water demand. Weak management system of DOI. No effective farmer organization. Farmers at the tail end of system would recieve great benefits from imporved management of the system.120,5108,50,42,50,51,52,522350903000397110000110000214059021400952,341230,51030,534000,5-1
139,2119862-2300,52,41,52,51,52,52,52,54,41,53,51,51,54,31,51,41,51,35,22,44,40,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,42,34,55,54,54,44,52,560,53,3545,56,56,51,54,51,54,51,501000.51,51159,2-2-2-21,5Lower caste people with smaller hodings sandwiched between big parcels are debarred from getting water.1,52,52,5-2-2Improved use of seeds and fertilizers. Changes in the cropping practices from cereals to vegetables and fruits.Large landowners: Brahmins (15%). Medium: Brahmins and Chettris (65%). Smaller: Chettris and Sarkis (20%).-21,5Farm channel maintenance is a collective activity for all farmers whose land is served by the field channel. Group maintenance initated by any person on the channel. After the completion of system DOI will be responsible for all maintenance on the main and branch.2,51,52,52,5Lack of farmers' participation in irrigation organization and activities. Lack of active role of a farmer-managed canal (Dhowan irrigation) which exists about 200m upstream of Hyangja's main canal.255,51600,5555,31,510,5230101510353010150751100002100002751500103201005656,22-1
140,211991-22In 1983, a farmers irrigation committee was formed.208,51,51,53,53,51,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,54,5300,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,55,54,54,55,51,5-2-2300,55,56,51,56,52,56,52,501000.51,51160,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Low budget and poor maintenance cause excessive leakage and seepage. It is because most work is done by DIHM, not by the farmers themselves.Because most work is done by DIHM officials, it is difficult to enforce rules (e.g. fee collection).Yields, low crop intensity.Brahmin, Kumale, and Darai castes, 4 class farmers (1) abstentee landlords (2) owners with large land (3) owners with small land (4) landless farmers.1,53,5The contractor does the maintenance. The Regional Director approves the money for maintenance of the main canal. Because of water charges, they are not willing to contribute. Farmers do not participate in the annual maintenance of the main canal. They only participate in the maintenance of field channels shared by a number of farmesr.3,52,53,51,5Poor maintenance due to a low budget. Excessive leakage: lack of control structure. Low coordination between DOI and local farmers. Even though this system is hydrologically linked to another system, there is no rule concerning the relationship between the two. This complicates potential improvement management procedures.117,5103,50,41,52,51,550,5310000903000010011000019550252009332100974-1225,5-1-1
141,211989-22In 1980, the old FMIS was expanded by DHIM.400,41,51,52,52,54,41,53,51,31,51,51,51,51,51,51,51,51,55,53,54,5100,31,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,42,53,54,54,54,51,4-2-2300,45,46,51,53,51,53,51,501000.51,51161,2-2-2-22,5-22,42,31,4Because of the poor condition of the main canal, the system is not getting enough water. Nevertheless, the old farmer-managed irrrigation organization is still working well. If an additional water source can solve the water scarcity problem, this system will function well.Water fees were rarely collected. This is because farmers believe DIHM does almost nothing for them. This increased the enforcing cost. Authorities..Crop intensity, yield.Tharus, Danais, Brahmins, Chettris, Magars, Gurungs and Tamangs4,53,5Labor mobilization is operated by the 11 members' committee (main) outlet sub-committees, and the organ of separate system within a system. By official statement, the main canal is maintained by the services of a contractor (but unsatisfactory performance). Farmers participate in only the maintenance of the field channels. There is a fine system, but many farmers are unaware it.3,52,53,51,5Insufficient management due to the lack of enough communication between DOI and the farmers: many conflicts. High potential food productivity if the system is well managed. This system a has good network of branch canals and field canals. Farmers in this system used to have a very well-performing irrigation organization. Considering these two, completion of intake will solve the problems of this system, if it can bring enough water to this system.300,5300,50,7185,51,5-2310090003100900021000021000024000600240006007,3-1-1-1-1
142,121986-22-12300,5-11,44,42,42,42,42,41,52,51,51,41,51,4-1-1-22,4-23,32,40,3-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,3-1-12,45,44,3-12,4-1-1-1-17,31,4-2-2-2-2-2-21162,1-2-2-21,5Tailenders are getting inadequate water.1,4-11,4Strengths: Intake is well-maintained, Some farmers possess cooperative spirit. Weaknesses: Minor canals have been neglected, Absence of discipline among some farmers, Conflict between farmers and officials.-1-1Landless, owners-cum-tenants, and large landholders (3 classes). In the ethnic group, Yadav, Dunwars, Telis, Khatness, Muslims, Brahmins and Chettris.5-21,3The maintenance of the main system by DOI without consultation with the tenants. So far no water fees are imposed and collected. No landholding records. Project officials are trying to get such records from the Land Revenue Office, Dhanusha. According to some project officials, operation and maintenance do not exist.3,42,32,32,4Insufficient financial funds for operation and management. No developed field channel of farmers (no design of field channel). No farmers' organizations. No communication between DOI and farmers for the maintenance. Price instability of agricultural products.-1-1-116,530,33,5-11-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1-1-12-1-1
143,1-11986-23-14000,51,31,34,44,44,43,42,31,32,31,31,31,31,3-2-2-22,4-24,33,4-11,32,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,3-15,45,55,44,4-11,3-2-22000,47,56,51,3-1-1-1-122222-11163,1-2-2-21,3Tailenders and 'have nots' could not get as much as headenters, but it was not serious because they still got enough water.2,52,41,4This system still provides enough water, but it is due to good water source. Poor maintenance would be able to destroy this system.Transaction cost is high due to the lack of coordination between the Irrigation Department, the Agriculture Department, and farmers.Yields, cropping intensity.The indigenous groups (Rajbangshis, Tajpurias), immigrants from the hills (Brahmins, Chettris, Rais, Limbus, Tamangs)5,31,4DOI is technically responsible for main system maintenance. The impossiblity of regular maintenance due to an insufficient budget. Farmers themselves often clean portions of the secondary and tertiary canals. They collect money to hire laborers to clean the canals.3,32,33,41,4Inefficient DOI management, motivation, and responsibility. Poor communication between DOI officials and farmers. The lack of effective farmers' organizations (weak participation). Financial funds are not enough for operation and maintenance. No farm channels.-1-10,754618,51,515,5175-1-1-1-1175-1-1-1-11100001100001-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-13-1-110,3-1
144,211989-22System was completed at that time.1300,42,51,51,51,55,51,53,53,51,52,53,52,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,53,53000,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,52,51,51,5-22,5400,55,51000,56,56,51,53,51,53,51,500002.51,51164,2-2-2-21,5Water is insufficient to reach all the land in the system. There is no means to formally exclude appropriators.2,52,51,5Author mentioned the decrease in O&M cost payment, and extention of command area. It was due to partial turn-over.Turn over from Agency to canal committee: self-discipline and low O&M charge. Committee makes decisions, levies fines, communicates with DOI.O&M costs (water charge), command area, crop intensity.Brahmins, Chettris, Magars, Gurungs, and Newars. (75% of the tail farmers were Brahmins or Chettris.) .41,52,5Chitwan Irrigation Project contracted the maintenance work. Although the funds were as high as $4761, today they are decreasing. Branch channel maintenance has two types: a) contract, b) farmers themselves. Raised money to pay expenses for a bulldozer to help rebuild the headworks which washes away frequently.2,52,52,53,5Effective farmers' organization. High farmers' participation. Conflicts among upstream irrigation systems. Insufficient budget for O&M. No clear responsibility between DOI and farmers about maintenance. Continuous water distribution among branches and rotation between farm units. Adverse effect of Tenancy system to cropping intensity. Water rights earned are saleable (only excess water): more land is thus irrigated.300,4300,41,52010,51,533,5300100003001000011000011000022500750225007505,07-1-11130,5-1
145,211992-27-230,52,51,53,55,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,5550,43,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,53,54,54,53,55,51,515,51,568,53,51,51,3-2-2-2-2-1-21165,2-2-2-21,5The powerless suffered. One farmer said that 'might is right'.1,52,51,5Elaborate individual outlets and farm canals reduce the possibility of conflict, and the owner-operated farm mangement increases agricultural productivity.There is one dominating caste, Chhetri, who have power over all decision-making. That makes enforcement of rules difficult.Agricultural productivity, conflict, crop intensity.Ranabhats and Chettri (90%). Owner-operated with little or no tenancy or sharecropping. .51,53,5The irrigation organization: a) looks after the annual repair and maintenance of the canal and the brush dam, b) sets the water rotation schedule, and c) keeps a record of the members who have participated in canal cleaning and brush dam construction. The management of the system is dominated by Ranabhats.2,52,52,51,5Central decision making by dominant Ranabhats. Misutilization of fees collected, not used for capital improvements. Because the water is abundant, the farmers' organizational structure is relatively loose. But, this system has elaborate farm channels so that each farmer has an independent outlet on the main canal. This makes this system conflict-free.220,5200,50,49,50,51,550,5210000002850001511000011000022000080215000857-1200,3-1-1
146,211991-2740,51,51,54,54,51,52,53,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,570,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,53,53,52,51,5-22,550,52,577,53,53,51,52,52,52,51,510000.56,41166,2-2-2-22,5-2-2-21,5Great deal of organizational solidarity. Extensive written records of accounts. The organization is responsive.LowHigh production per unit area and use of improved seed and fertilizers.Brahmins (dominated), Magars (10%) .564,5In the period of Jimawal, 128 men were mobilized for main canal each day unil completion (32 men per one block). After the formation of the Irrigation Committee (1979), locally contracted for the annual maintenance.1,52,52,51,5Major source of conflict of disagreement with Yampa Phant (over water rights on the Aadi Mul Spring). Increased employment opportunities outside of agricultural sector results in hiring contractors for maintenance and farmers have begun leaving agriculture. This system must protect water rights as the main factor which caused the irrigators to work as a group. Rotation water distribution.225,5215,50,52,530,51,53,5160040012001000011000011000021050575210500856,9-13001000-1
147,211991-22Farmers decided to abandon lower Kulo, Baraha Kulo, and improve Jaise Kulo. About 3 years ago, they improved the source to Jaise and used that instead of Baraha. Rule have changed slightly.37,51,51,51,51,51,51,53,54,21,51,52,53,52,52,51,51,51,55,52,51,5100,53,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,52,55,54,51,55,51,5-2-280,53,53,51,43,51,53,51,500005.51,51167,2-2-2-22,52-2-21,5Farmers are very conscious of the need for effective maintenece to improve irrigation system performance. Well organized, formal structure -- pakka laws.Everybody notices the necessity of compliance, so it is very easy to enforce rules.Crop intensity, crop yield.Brahmins and Kulmi1,52,5No formal organization for operation and maintenance. One man is responsible for system operation. The Kulmi provided some agricultural labor on the Brahmin farms. A rotation system to mobilize labor for maintenance.2,51,51,53,5Continuous conflicts over water rights between Satra Say Phant System and Yampa Phant Irrigation System. Insufficient management: no formal irrigation committee.300,5300,50,5210,51,51,511535500011535500011000011000012550-115-11255001510121001500-1
148,211986-27-2350,52,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,51250,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,54,54,55,54,54,55,51,540,52,5250,55,53,51,51,51,51,51,511000.51,51168,2-2-2-22,5New immigrants from the hills.2,52,51,5Even though some problems exist, the abundancy of water makes this system function well.Because there are two groups, it might be difficult to enforce rules. However, there has been no problem so far. It is . . .Crop intensity, yield.Tharu1,52,5(1) The heads of households, those attending school, and shepherds are excluded from this work. (2) In 1985, received $500 from the district panchayat to make a more PUCCA diversion. (3) The committee mobilized labor that equaled $3000 to erect the stone-net diversion.1,51,51,53,5(1) The issue of the criterion for determining the level of labor contribution. (2) Cooperative and positive irrigation organization.3003001,510,510,51,50,5110000001100000011000011000010001000100010009,8-1100,525000,5-1
149,211991-27-2260,5-11,51,51,52,51,52,53,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5300,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,55,54,55,52,5803,5200,54,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51169,2-2-2-22,5-21,52,51,5Auraha has no real organization base. The system is dominated by large farmers. However, the farmers seem to be able to maintain and manage their field channels well. Together with the fact that water supply is abundant, the system provides a reliable supply of water to farmers.-2Increase in production per unit area due to improved managementLarge farmers, small holders, tenant farmers and landless laborers. Tharus, Brahmins, Chettris .51,53,5Individual farmers are responsible for maintaining the channels that flow through their land. In 1985, 400 farmers contributed to the maintenance and cleaning activities. No manager so far has imposed a penalty for tampering with canal networks. The maintenance of the head area and the main canal is the responsibility of the collective efforts of farmers.1,51,52,53,5The system is very loose, socially, organizationally, and physically. The eastern Auraha Irrigation System is not a real system at all because natural springs and high watertables make irrigation unneccessary for most of the year. However, the western portion of the irrigation system is well-maintained. No formal irrigation organization (committee) is responsible for operation and maintenance. Auraha is really a spontaneous network rather than an irrigation system. There is conflict between the users and the sugar farm (approx 500 ha.) run by Birganj sugar factory for the water use.255,4245166015135015252522501525351100001100001500030202500030206,5-1-12000,5-1
150,111986-23Most of the people at Kerabari were originally from the nearby hill areas and have migrated to the Terai area. They then built the system to irrigate the land.350,51,41,51,52,52,41,52,51,41,42,41,42,42,4-11,41,31,55,51,54,5150,51,5-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,43,32,4-12,42,44,4-1-1-1-1-13,41,4-1-1-1-101000.5-11170,1-2-2-22,4-22,4-11,4The system possesses a tight, well-managed irrigation organization. The physical system is also very well-constructed. The system is one of the most impressive farmer-managed irrigation systems.-1-1Brahmins (dominant), Chettris, Newars, Magars, Limbus, Rais, Sarkis, and Kamis1,52,4Maintenance and operation costs are high due to geography. Then a lot of cash was supported by DOI. The joint committee (lower and upper) mobilizes the labor required for maintenance. Individual farmers are only responsible for their own farm channels. The farmers themselves collected $3500 to stabilize the sliding hill. A farming household must contribute 1 laborer for each 2 bighas (1.32 ha) of land owned.1,41,42,43,3Very effective irrigation committee (formal organization). Farmers' positive participation in the operation and maintenance. High maintenance costs. Good relation between farmers and DOI. The lands are equitably distributed, which seems to have fostered good cooperation.280,5280,51130,5-20,52-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-1-1-1500,5500000,5-1
151,111986-23-1125,5-11,42,44,42,41,42,4-1-12,3-11,32,3-1-1-11,55,51,41,44500,31,4-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,4-1-14,42,34,3-1-1-1-1150,44,43,31,31,41,41,41,410000.31,41171,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,4The organization is fairly decentralized. The organizational structure is a unique mix of the panchayat and water users. The canals are in good shape. All these lead to good performance.-1-1Largest groups are Brahmins and Chettris. Also Magars, Limbus, Rais, Newars and Rajbangshis1,51,5The absentee laborer has to contribute 'double labor' next time. For Lami Canal (upper) alone, $250 to $300 are invested. Finances are raised through BIGHABADDI. Labor is mobilized continuously for 3 months. Farmers are also required to contribute a certain amount of money per 0.66 hectares (Bigha).2,42,42,43,3Decentralized decision-making for operation and maintenance between panchayat officials and farmers. Equitable land distribution in the command area due to the land reform schemes. Good organizational mix of panchayat officials and water users.240,4240,41415,4-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-1-1-1500500000-1
155,1119842-2.220,51,51,52,52,52,52,53,51,51,53,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,54,50,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,54,54,54,51,5-2-2194,14,51,51,56,52,56,52,511000.51,51175,12,5-22,52,51,5There are agricultural support system which provides fertilizers and inputs required, Water is sufficient during monsson. Thus, farmers get benefits-no cost.lowincrease in cropping intensity, and increase in productivity.4 ethnic groups: Brahmins, Gurungs, Chhetris, and Magars.5-21,5No maintenance instructions or schedules exist. Even if water charges are fixed at a flat rate of Rs 6 per Ropari, no water charges have yet been collected For the Dhalpas' salary, 6kg/annum paddy is made by the farmers.2,52,52,52,5Criteria of performance are: productivity, equity, environmental stability, cost recovery, others. Increase of cropping intensity (from 124 to 219%). This project was iniciated with the objective of raising the living standard of the people in the project area (income opportunities). There is no water storage facility. The objectives of the project should include water management, efficiency and equity in distribution. No measurement structure in canal systems. Rice and wheat production increase by 136% after the implementation of this project.230,5210,50,863,82,51,510,517505020275000251100001100001302000502251000657,6-1-12300-1
156,111988-22-27600,51,41,44,34,32,3-12,33,31,33,34,21,31,31,31,3-11,45,44,33,3-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-13,3-1-14,32,3-11,3-2-24039,48,45,31,2-1-1-1-110001,41176,1-2-2-21,3Tailenders have suffered from the lack of water due to leakage.2,32,31,4Unlined canal causes water leakage and this makes this system less effective than expected.Delay in the release of the allocated budget. Long and cumbersome approval process.Income, cropping intensity, yield.In both zones (east and west), Tharus, Yadhab, Musalman, Brahman and others (Dum, Chamar, etc.)-23,4(1) The pumps purchased under the project are 3 or 4 stage turbines. (2) In the pilot projects, the field channels are constructed by the farmers. (3) Water Users' Association has no ability to mobilize labor.2,32,33,31,3(1) The author evaluates all performance criteria at three levels: turnout, pump unit, project. (2) Farmers' involvement in planning water distrubution schedule or implementation. (3) A civil works inspection team for system maintenance. (4) The tubewell irrigation system is more sophisticated than surface water system. (5) In the project area, political organizations do not interfere with the projects: relationship of high supervision and low delegation. (7) Low capacity of farmers' management: No long experience of tubewell irrigated agriculture for farmers.167167-1-114,5-1-11145-1262146-126190371903712846-12622846-1264,82-2-2-2-1
157,1119903-2.260,42,51,53,54,54,52,42,51,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-21,56,52,54,40,52,52,5-2-2-22-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,55,55,54,55,51,5-2-2513,46,56,51,52,51,52,51,501000.51,51177,11,5Tailend farmers (nearly 40%) hardly ever get any water because canal was broken and not repaired.2,52,51,5The physical structure of canal is in bad shape, wherever water available farmers have tried to grow spring paddy to increase cropping intensity.High: IMP is trying to turnover the system but farmers would not take it over-high transaction cost.The cropping intensity is hardly increased due to unavailability of water during dry season.Brahmans, Chhetriyas, Newar, Kumal, Gurung, Kami, Savki, Bamai1,41,4Labor contribution is the only form of participation (= no cash or in-kind), that too was reported to be in the form of wage labor. According to the report of Association Organizers, the labor contribution in 1988 was 697 man-days with a minimum of one man-day to maximum of 765. The information on the flow of funds for O&M is available for the last 3 years from WRID.3,53,53,42,5Comparative analysis with several attributes among head, middle, and tailend. Most beneficiaries are non-participants as members in any of the farmer organizations. The occurance of water-use conflicts was rather seldom across all the three reaches. Reemphasizing local resource mobilization after the involvement of IMP, in the long run the system must be operated and maintained by the beneficiaries themselves. Lack of effective operation and maintenance to overcome the environmental effects of the earthquake and heavy rainfall (1988) resulted in a deterioration of the system.147,41400,62-13,31,52,5218020062315020065185150277230390009145000953,1-1-130000-1
163,211992-1-1-152,51,51,52,52,52,52,52,51,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-2-21,55,52,51,5300,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,54,54,54,54,51,5-2-2350,55,51,51,3-2-2-2-2-2-21183,2-2-2-21,5Tail end does recieve comparitively less water2,5-2-2Land under vegetable cultivation-2Increase in the production per unit areaNewar (60%), Chhetris (20%), other (20%)4,51,5No cost raised internally. District Panchayat has contributed twice (NRs 7,000 in 1977 and NRs 8,000 in 1983).2,52,52,51,5No committee or officers and regular meetings. Irrigation matters may be brought up at Panchayat meetings. The Panchayat appointed a construction committee to repair a certain place. No written records on minutes. Rotation water distribution. Deforestation has increased the silt problem. Since last 2 years, no canal cleaning has been done.2002000,353,515,51,50,5300001003000010011000011000028510050290505010-1-1-1-1
165,1119824-1-12,31,52,33,32,32,32,3-11,3-1-1-12,3-11,3-11,35,51,31,3-11,32,3-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,3-12,3-14,3-1-1-160,53,53,51,34,51,5-1-1122221,31185,1-2-2-2-1-2-1-12,3-1-1-1Pahadi1,42,3Cash is raised (Khava) for maintenance. Emergency work (Jhura). In 1978, the landslide stopped the water one week so maintained 10 days.2,32,33,31,3No organizational change over 40 years (=Pale system) and open entry in the organization. Written rules and minutes are kept. Water delivery problem exists due to siltational seepage. Water allocaton is operated on the basis of landholding size and time rotation, not water rights.270,3270,3-10,323,53,503-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-1-11003410000-1
167,211992-2-180,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,51,52300,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,54,54,54,55,52,51003,5400,55,53,51,34,51,54,51,510000.51,51187,2-2-2-21,5Tailenders must depend on rainfall after transplantation of rice. Continuous flow in head while tail suffers.1,51,51,5Notes lack of equity, some conflict in water distribution and in shirking of required labor by wealthy.low-2Pahadi and Indo-Burman4,53,5No cash from farmers, only in-kind for the Dalphas' salary. NRs 300,000 to repair intake after flood to DOI. In 1981, installed hume pipe (100 meters), plastic pipe (100 meters).2,52,52,51,5No attempt to measure water allocation was made and no fines are collected. Farmers are trying to get the government to take over operation of the canal. Strong efforts for conflict resolution by farmers themselves appeared. Three steps for conflict resolution are Dalpha, committee, and the police.2002000,410,55,53,50,530000100300001001100002100001773020029050506,75-1-1-1-1
168,11198319806-210,51,51,42,42,42,4-1-1-11,2-1-1-14,3-11,3-11,45,5-12,5-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-12,4-12,43,54,4-1-1-1793,53,51,5-1-1-2-210012.42,41188,1-2-2-2-1-2-1-2-2-2-1-1Magar, Gurung, Brahmin, Hewar1,52,5One laborer per 10 MATO MURI. Fine of RS5 for failure to show up. Failure to pay, then water is stopped.3,42,33,42,3Extremely high silt load in flood. Water right exists. Open participation in the membership. Water allocation on the basis of landholding size. Rotation water distribution.-1-10,51,278,41,5-130010000300100002100002100003-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1-15000-1-1-1
169,11198219823Flood washed away headworks on portions of canal. Committee was formed to take care of it.6,51,51,52,32,33,51,43,42,51,52,51,31,32,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,4-12,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,53,54,34,34,31,55,5-1-1-145,52,53,31,41,51,51,51,501000.31,51189,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,4Concerned with efficiency.Decisions made locally.Not much information on this.Magar, Chhetri1,52,5Materials should be brought by all farmers who do not want to contribute labor for canal. Money is collected from all the farmers.2,32,32,31,4Water rights exist (for the water diverted). Land was registered but not water.300,2300,20,120,75-1-1-1110000001100000011000011000011000000110000005,75-172,57000,5-1
170,211991-2-2-1115,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,5-12025,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,5-14,54,34,51,55,51,5-2-245,52,53,51,52,51,52,51,512222.51,51190,2-2-2-22,5-2-22,41,5System has a good system of rules. Effective organiation.Transaction costs low.Efficient.Tharu and Pahadi1,52,5Rate of contribution increased for emergency maintenance. No restriction on women or low caste for resource mobilization. Poor or small land holders might be exempted from contribution. Annually raised Rs 3,000 - 4,000 to buy materials.2,42,52,53,5When water is adequate, there is excess agricultural product to sell. But when scarce, some households have food deficit for 2-3 months. Water allocation by land area. Rotation water distribution is scarce. Minutes are kept. Uncontrolled grazing yields conflicts. Fine was used for a feast, but now it is invested in the maintenance of canals by the influence of Brahmins. Converting bari into Khet without authorization yields conflicts.200,5200,531066,51,53,5200001002000010011000011000011000000100001005-1-1-1-1
171,211991-17-175,52,51,52,53,51,51,53,51,52,51,51,51,54,51,52,52,51,55,52,51,5400,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,51,52,55,54,55,51,5-2-2400,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-200000.5-21191,2-2-2-21,5Tail-enders get less water, but its not that serious. Since the project, no real problem.2,42,51,5Water is adequate for the system.-1Economic rate of return, cropping intensity, yields.Brahmin: 50%, Giri/Chhetri: 33%, Newar: 5%, etc. No real diversity, no ethnic diversity.6,51,5No records kept. Used to be each household supplied 1 person per household to do the canal cleaning. Now shifting to a system weighted by land. Allow widows to pay Rs rather than do work, or if really poor not to contribute at all. The ILC project has estimated that it will put an amount of nearly 2.2 million Rs ($100,000) to the rehabilitation and construction of new canals, of which 9% has to be generated locally in the form of labor, cash or in-hand contribution. No formal organizing of labor. No fines.2,52,52,53,5Continuous water distribution since 1988. Positive activation of farmer organization (Kulo-Samiti): organize themselves, form a committee for the approval for the Irrigation Line of Credit Project, to undertake the rehabilitation of the LIS. WUA's registration with the District Administration of Syangja. This case provides enough insights into why, how, and where public intervention should take place, and what mechanisms helped sustain this system over time.185,5190,511,510,53,50,522503504032504003511000011000022050075320500757-1-1-1-1
172,111989-22-1393,52,3-1-1-1-12,32,3-1-12,5-1-12,5-1-2-11,55,32,31,51300,5-12,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,5-1-12,54,3-1-1-2-2750,36,31,21,2-2-2-2-2-2-21192,1-2-2-2-1-2-1-12-1-1-1Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetri1,52,3Records are kept. Users are assigned clearance work of 5 meters of branch canal or 2 meters of main canal per katha of their land holding. Farmers had collectively raised NRs 58,753 in cash, mobilized labor worth NRs 387,860 and acquired group loans of NRs 422,440.-12,32,3-2Little information on operation of system. Rotate by branches, some conflict as among branches. In the canal construction, arrangement with existing Dharampu Canal from Tin Muhan for benefit of reducing cost, almost complete turnover.-1-10,553013,31,3-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-15-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
173,211992-18-2250,51,51,51,52,52,52,52,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,53,51,51000,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,54,54,54,55,52,560,53,5500,55,53,51,52,51,521,510000.51,51193,2-2-2-21,5People in lower end (tail) who are never sure when water will arrive.2,52,51,5Doesn't seem to have any.-2-2Predominantly Brahmin, Jaisis (only 7 households otherwise) .51,53,5-22,52,52,52,5Tailenders do not contribute monetary fees or labor to system as their supply of water is unreliable. Status of the committee: registered with the Zilla Panchayat under the Decentralization Act.2002000,512,50,51,55,52001000020010000110000210000215800502208000012,2-1-1-1-1
174,1119874-12977,51,51,32,32,33,32,32,3-11,3-1-1-12,3-11,3-11,3-11,31,37700,51,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,32,3-14,3-1-1-1700,26,23,51,3-1-1-1-1222222,41194,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-22,3-1-1-1Tharu and Pahadi1,54,5Cash was mobilized on the basis of households at a fixed rate. 'Panker' for labor substitute varied for Rs 30 to 85 per hectare across different villages. A bulldozer was provided by the Government and also Rs 50,000 grant by Tikapur Development Board for construction. 16,271 mandays were mobilized for main canal construction. In 1986, Rs 128,135 worth of materials were supported by MOA. Labor is mobilized on the basis of land for the main canal and intake construction and repair. In the case of tertiary canal, the basis of labor mobilization is household.2,32,31,31,3The author emphasizes the importance of resource mobilization because regular repair and maintenance of the system was critical. Also he suggests that this system should be taken over by DOI to accomplish a stable supply of food. Different levels of organization are formed according to the nature of a river's source and the extent of resource requirements. A drastic fluctuation in ground water exists. A strong farmer organization exists and attempts to expand the command area via deforestation and a new settlement program.-1-1-1-1-11,3-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1110000110000250-1-1-1-1250-1-1-1-1-1-1250000,5-1-1
175,211991-26-219,51,51,54,54,52,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,550,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,55,54,55,51,5-2-270,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21195,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5The farmers are willing to organize themselves to take care of repair/maintenance and distribution of water. The water rights are well defined.-2Production per unit area, winter crop and spring crop is increasing gradually.Pahadi4,53,5Penalty is being used when any cash is required. The farmers agreed to contribute cost sharing 25% of the total cost of rehabilitation.2,52,53,52,5Important criteria for feasibility of rehabilitation project are identified: 1) genuine demand from the majority of farmer beneficiaries, 2) technically feasible 3) economic rate of return is 10% or more, 4) farmers willing to organize Water Users Association, and 5) water rights are not contested.181,5112,50,51,50,51,50,33-1-13-1-11-1-13-1-111000011000013320-125-1133-13-1-134,5-1-1-1
176,21992987,51,51,51,54,51,53,53,54,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,53,51,54,41480,53,52,5-23,5-23,54,52,53,53,5-1-16834,59,56,51,56,52,56,52,500002.51,51196,21,5People in the far end of the tail section sometimes have no water and resort to bribing the govt. dhalpa tp provide water.1,51,5Large system, difficult to manage. Lack of coordination between government and farmers. The government has broken its promises.High transaction costs. If farmers need main canal cleaned they go to DOI where typical bureaucratic delay sets in. They may say that they don't......Not very efficient.Madeshi6,54,5Three forms of resource mobilization exist: 1) labor, 2) Toli fund and/or Cash, 3) grain collection. Farmers are required to deposit 10% of the ESI construction work in their toli account (total = Rs 64,595). For 1988, a total of 1943 mandays were mobilized for cleaning branch cannals and cleaning/constructing field channels. Also farmers received Rs 160 per person.4,43,43,52,5Author aims at assessing the first year impact of major activities of the IMP's intervention: 1) water distribution, 2) O&M, 3) WUAs, and 4) monitoring, evaluation and feedback (ME & F). Equitable water distribution criterion is 1) increases in proportion of irrigated area, 2) increases in crop, and 3) delivery of fair share of the systems' water among the users. The impact of O&M is measured by essential structured improvement plans (ESI). The impact of WUAs is 1) No. of WU tolies formed, 2) membership rules, 3) WU tolies ability to resolve conflicts.212,5163,51,459-1-1-123238255310240841100210024627123333548536,2-1
177,1119907-2.22,51,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,51,550,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,54,52,52,55,51,5-2-259,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21197,12,5-22,52,51,5The perennial source of water has helped to grow two crops and even third crop in the head fields. There is increase in the cropping intensity and also in equity in the distribution of water.Lowcrop yields and cropping intensity increased.Brahmans 39%, Magar 42%, Kumal 12%, Newar 5%, Damai 2%.1,54,5Labor is the only resource mobilized in the MIS. In 1977-1978, for the partial section of the canal line, a sum of Rs 10,000 was donated by the District Panachayat. The tailenders have to contribute more labor than head reach farmers. The annual maintainance record for labor contribution is maintained.1,52,51,51,5The equity in water distribution, community coherence and O&M procedures are some major determinants of the system to sustain over time. Technical and financial constraints lead to inefficient O&M of the system. Timed rotation for water distributional equity. Common understanding and cooperation cohesive by the water users. No formal rules and regulation. No formal organization. Water availability in different seasons has affected their cropping patterns and intensities. Temporary structures of the system should be improved.220,5186,51,38-100,50,51830501224502802711000011000023020068313000876-180-1-1
179,211992-22-2140,52,51,52,52,55,52,52,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,51800,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,54,51,5-22,560,53,5443,55,58,51,58,52,58,52,5110001,51199,2-2-2-21,5Farmers in middle and tail end chronicly short of water.1,51,51,5Suggests combination of (Panchayat) politics and cumbersome, unresponsive bureaucracy that inhibits formation of effective organization.-1Crops per year and yield increased.Brahmin, Rai1,54,5The Irrigation Department currently spends about NRs 30,000 annually on repairs and maintenance (co-operating costs: NRs 71,000 per year). Mobilization of labor shows great decline in 3 years.3,53,53,52,5A. Gadkhar Water Users Committee was established (1980) to assume responsibility for O&M of the scheme. Due to poor performance it was re-constituted (1982) for the purpose of preventing vandalism and theft, cropping regulation, and water rotation. Official assistance has been irregular, uncooordinated and arbitrary, sometimes impeding the efforts of farmers rather than supporting them. B. DOI used to provide 3 guards for O&M. Since July '91 they withdrew the post of guards to reinstall the post of guard, transaction cost was high.300,5300,50,51,255,51,53,521009000300100002100210028050150280501508-1-1400,5-1
180,2119917-1212,51,51,51,51,52,51,53,51,51,51,41,52,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,51350,51,52,5-21,51,51,51,5-21,51,5-22,32,53,45,53,51,55,51,5200,5-14,3-12,51,550,44,410,32,300000.56,51200,2-2-2-21,5-22,52,51,5Efficient systemTransaction costs lowLow costsTharus and Pahadi1,52,5Two types of maintenance activities: 1) major work: construction of a diversion structure and desiltation of the canal and annual routine maintenance work. Minor work: individual inlets, voluntary work, minor leakages and maintenance.2,52,53,51,5The Muluki Ain (legal code of Nepal) has explained the process of participation by farmers in the maintenence of system and its consequences. Each Kula is the communal property of the villagers concerned. A well-organized one-level irrigation organization (water user group) exists to provide the share of labor, to attend the meetings related to Kula, to pay the Khara if a member does not send the laborer or steals water during rotation. Three elements of a leader: small scale, local selection, direct compensation.200,5-11134,51,5-1400001004000010011000011000021000000210000002,33-1-1-1-1
181,211992-24-2349,52,51,52,52,52,52,52,54,51,51,54,51,54,51,51,52,51,56,53,54,55000,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,53,54,52,53,51,5-2-25000,58,58,51,526,54,51,51,511000.55,51201,2-2-2-21,5The tailenders at Imadol do not get water from the system at all.2,52,51,5Sophisticated organization, pretty well maintained canal, yet the farmers are getting less interested in managing irrigation after the headwork was made permanent.-2-2Maharjah community of Newar ethnic group4,52,5Routine maintenance works are carried out by Dhalpas (DOI employees) in mid-April every year.2,52,53,51,5DOI is undertaking O&M responsibility ever since the system was rehabilitated in 1965. Farmers repair the canal themselves due to poor condition even if DOI (Dhalpas) carries out routine maintenance work every year. The farmers from head through tail have no coordination in the management of the system. Irrigation organziations, SI GUTHI, formed for irrigation system management and other purposes (head 8, middle 4). The so-called verbal law (finished the transplantation works before 15th of Asadh) was enforced by the Army and still remains in force.200,4200,50,11010,51,50,53000010030000100110000110000295500039550109,8-1-1-1-1
182,111984-22Farmers wanted to get three crops a year by cultivating wheat in the winter.6,3-11,41,41,41,31,43,42,41,32,42,41,32,41,51,51,51,55,52,44,4-11,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,43,42,4-11,41,43,3-1-1-1-1-13,51,51,31,31,31,301000.32,51202,1-2-2-21,4The appropriators are categorized into 3 groups according to their economic wel-being. Priority goes to the deficient group, then the balanced group, then the surplus group. The non-member appropriators get water last.-1-11,4The AGO seems to be able to solve the problems related to the management of the system. However, because the system is rather new, farmers are inexperienced. Some confusion still exists.-1-1Brahmin, Chettri, Newar, Kumal, Darai, Gurung, Damai, Thakuri1,42,4The DC started a 'cooperative fund' from 1984. Water and pipe fees were collected on the basis of the area holding of the farmers (1983). The DC fixed the amount of fee per Ropari of land and named it the water and pipe fee.2,42,41,4-1The priority order of water supply was set up first to deficit groups (food) and second and third to club members and non-members respectively. After the triple cropping, the productivity of land has increased. The lack of experience in management stood as a severe problem in the process of water management even after the completion of this project. For the maintenance of pipe and water supply, the position of 'covener' and 'lineman' is operated. Overall the maintenance is the responsibility of DC.-1-10,85-1-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
183,1119868-124,51,31,32,32,33,32,32,31,3-11,31,31,3-1-1-1-11,35,31,31,3-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,32,34,32,3-14,3-1-1-145,52,31,31,3-2-2-2-2-2-21203,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,3-1-1-1Pahadi1,32,3The collected cash is used when the system would fail frequently and the works were carried out by MAGARS in contract. Routine maintenance is carried out usually twice druing the wet season.2,32,33,31,3The author explains the water rights well. The water right is linked with land ownership. Also it depends on the amount of contribution on construction and maintenance. Water rights for drinking water purpose is given first priority over the irrigation water. The author introduces the concept of SGUC (socio-geographic unit) heterogeneity (Hs). This gives a notion of correlation between Hs and water availability. He also discusses the concept of theoretical relative water supply (RWST).2102100,530,625,31,5-13100880231008802110000110000280048828040883,2500,5-1-1-1
184,211992-222202,52,51,52,52,52,53,52,51,52,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,56,54,51,54000,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,5-25,54,5-2-21,5-2-2400,55,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-21204,2-2-2-21,5Tailenders get much less water than headenders. Sera lies in tailend and recieves no water.1,52,51,5Delay, poor workmanship, design defects produce several water management problems. But despite this, this system was a good investment.-2Output/input ratio, cropping intensity, yields, income.40% Rais (oldest inhabitants), Magars: Brahmin (10%), Chhettri (40%), and Newar (10%)-21,5In 1983, the Department tendered a contract for annual maintenance. Until 1983, the maintenance crew took care of minor repairs, opened outlet gates according to schedule, and supervised the annual pre-monsoon maintenance operation.3,52,53,51,5DOI is responsible for O&M. The high concentration of ownership (4% of the ownership units control over 60% of the land) explains why it was impossible to obtain 'voluntary labor' contribution for construction of the project. Some farmers steal water. The contract maintenance approach is problematic: precluding self-management by farmers, implementing in a heavy-handed way. Water charge rates, collection procedures and management patterns must be changed: collected and managed by farmers themselves.260,5189,50,453,51,53,528002000310040050110000295502402001030325707616-1-1-1-1
185,211991-24-2120,51,51,51,52,52,52,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5205,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,53,54,55,52,55,51,5-2-260,53,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.52,51205,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Massive silt entry from Rapti River causes excessive siltation in the canal bed every year resulting in decreased carrying capacity of the canals and breakage of the canal embankment.-2Cropping intensity increased.Tharus 70%, Pahadi 30%.1,54,5In 1977, Rs 14,000 was raised for the rehabilitation. In 1979, a sum of Rs 51,000 was spent for the reconstruction of the canal: Rs 15,000 (the grant of district panchayat), Rs 7,000 (low from the local cooperative), Rs 9,000 (beneficiaries).1,51,52,53,5Nothing is known of resource mobilization at the time of construction. A five-member Kulo Samiti (formal body) works as executive manager of the system. When the water supply is sufficient, the farmers can irrigate as needed, whereas a rotation is practiced in the water scarcity. No farmers sell their water share to others. Massive silt entry from Rapti river caused excessive siltation in the canal bed every year resulting in decreased carrying capacity of the canals and the breach of the canal.30030026,3101,50,5210000002100000011000011000020155800201558007,2-1-1150,5-1
186,211991-26Area irrigated increased from 63ha to 100ha during the last 10yrs.100,51,51,51,51,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,5600,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,55,54,55,52,541,5200,54,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51206,2-2-2-21,5-22,51,51,5Strong organization. Fair water distribution and cropped area over the years has increased.-2Increased production per unit of area as well as cropping intensity.Tharus (66%), Brahmin, Chhetris, Tamang, Gurung, Magars4,54,5When more work is needed, the larger farmers need to share 2-3 laborers which is decided by the Kulo samiti. Present rule of penalty for defaulters is Rs. 50 which is higher than daily wage rates.2,52,52,53,5A formal body of Kulo Samiti exists in the system (WUA). All farmers get water to irrigate their fields according to their needs. Farmers have devloped from their own experience to determine the irrigation needs and time of irrigating a crop. KULO SAMITI is vested with authority to impose fines on the defaulters, exert social pressure, and stop irrigation water supply.3003000,52,83,51,50,5110000001100000011000011000011055800110558007,2150,5-1-1-1
187,211987-24-186,51,51,51,51,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,53750,42,51,5Raise funds for farmer in need-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,54,54,51,55,51,5-2-2105,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51207,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Unstable nature of the main canal and excess flow of water required frequent maintenance works. But system is exceptionally well run, canal in good condition. They have a constitution.All decisions made locally. Same director for past 17 years, very experienced.300% cropping intensity. A fair amount of work, but worth it.Brahmins (50%), Chhetris, Tamangs, Tharus, Gurung, Magar1,52,5The material cost for major repair and maintenance of the system is shared by the beneficiaries or per Bigha basis.2,51,52,53,5Nearly 80% of the people in the command area can read and write. A formal water users' organization exists (KULO SAMITI). It has a set of written rules. For the equitable water distribution, the farmers divided the command area into two groups. At the head-end four branch canals makes the first group and the remaining five branch canals together at the tail-end forms the second group. A rotational system of water distribution and utilization is formulated and followed accordingly among the branches of each group and among the farmers in each branch.300,5275,52415,5-21,5210000002100000011000011000010020800100208007,8-1-1-1-1
188,211991-23-27,52,51,52,52,52,52,53,51,52,52,51,51,51,52,5-2-21,55,52,51,524,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,5-24,5-21,5-2-28,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21208,2-2-2-22,5-22,51,52,5Frequent repair and maintenance are needed because of the temporary diversion structure.-2-2Brahmin and Chhetris1,52,5-22,52,52,53,5No formal organization of water users. Water share is decided on the basis of labor contribution. Due to excess water and moisture condition of the field cropping intensity is only 200%.200,5200,511,40,5-20,5110000001100000011000011000010000100100001004,2150,5-1-1-1
189,211987-24-258,52,51,53,53,53,51,53,51,51,54,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,53,51564,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,54,54,51,5-21,5-2-268,53,53,51,31,51,51,51,501000.51,51209,2-2-2-22,5-22,5-11,51As of 1991 a committee is operating and providing local enforcement.Fairly efficient. RElatively poor condition but still 300% CI.Brahmin, Tharus, Darai, Tamang1,52,5In 1980, the canal dykes and the intake point was rehabilitated with Gabian diversion structure.2,52,52,52,5During the monsoon season there is continuous flow, but the rotation system is used in the dry season. Sometimes tail-end farmers break the checks to take the water to their fields and this leads to conflict among the farmers. Permanent or semi-permanent diversion structure at the intake point may help cut short the annual repair and maintenance budget.300,5300,50,6736,51,51,51100000011000000110000110000110103050011010305009,3-1-1-1-1
191,211991-25In 1985, several improvements were made.201,51,51,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,54,5-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,52,54,55,52,530,52,5295,55,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51211,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5This system recieves adequate water. Command area has increased and so has the production.-2Use of improved varieties and also production per unit area increased.Tharus 45% Pahadis 55%4,54,5Canal cleaning work is done by nuniya (seasonal Indian migrant labor) on contract. This year's contract was for Rs. 12,000 which is equivalent to 240 mandays of labor.2,52,52,51,5WUO, KULO SAMITI exists to look after the operation and maintenance of the system. This system may need to fix the operational rules and regulations for the equitable distribution of water among the beneficiaries.280,5290,50,69815,51,51,5290000103600300101900101100002000100035009507200,5-1-1-1
192,211991-24-2168,51,51,51,51,52,51,53,54,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,51,5500,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,54,51,55,51,5-2-290,53,53,51,51,51,51,51,501000.51,51212,2-2-2-22,52,52,52,51,5The temporary diversion structure annually needs heavy expenditure to reconstruct and operate. Sometimes the breakage of the diversion system hampers the agricultural activities.All decisions made locally.Efficiently run for minimum input of labor: 300% cropping intensity.Majority of Tharus, rest Pahadis1,52,5Bullock power is used for the preparation by a majority of the farmers. Service of a tractor is available in the command area. Labor contributed by farmers for frequent repair of headworks.2,51,52,53,5A Water User Organization exists to operate and maintain the system. Water fees are collected by the WUO (RS 10 per bigha). During the dry season, the rotation system is practiced (time basis). When land is sold, the right of water share also shifts to the buyer. The temporary diversion structure annually needs heavy expenditures to reconstruct and operate. This problem may be solved with the construction of a semi-permanent to permanent diversion structure at the point of obstruction.300,5300,50,671651,502800200028002000110000110000105095010509508,8-1-1-1-1
193,211987-24-1-11,51,52,52,52,51,53,54,31,52,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,53,51,52,5300,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,53,54,51,55,52,560,53,5400,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21213,2-2-2-22,5-22,5-11Proportional weir and branch canals are unstable so that heavy loss of water and conflict occur. Strong organization with enforced rules. Good leadership. Verbal understandings with other villages with regard to water. Well maintained.Low transaction cost decisions rendered locally.Cropping Intensity is 300%.Tharus, Brahmin, Chhetris, Gurung, Magars1,52,5The farmers are free to contribute cash instead of labor at Rs 15 per day. Can hire another (a rich farmer will hire a poor farmer.1,51,52,53,5At present, all three sub-systems have their own organizations to look after the repair and maintenance of their own sub-system (WUO). The literacy status of the people is average. The water fee of Rs 80 per bigha per year is required. No conflict usually occurs due to water share and allocation within the system. If the main canal is increased in cross sectional area up to proportional weir, the water supply can be increased, thus expanding the command area of the system.300,5300,51,585,51,55,5150050002400600011000011000012000800120008005,9-1-1-1-1
194,211991-24-2.42,51,51,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,52,5-2-21,56,51,54,580,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,54,54,54,52,55,52,59,51,567,53,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51214,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Nicely run system, homogeneous farmers, water is sufficient. Farmers are happy with nearly 300 percent cropping intensity and no problem in the intake.lowIncrease in cropping intensity and production per unit of area.Brahmins (90%), Chhetries, Magar, Damai, Sarkis (10%).51,52,5This system while under construction, labor mobilization was based on land (110 man-days per 1 bigha) during 1986-87..1,52,52,51,5The water users organization has been formed after the completion of the system in 1987.290,5290,50,75,516,51,50,51600300102100800101100001100001201007002201007007,2400,5-1-1-1
195,111987-21The system is still under construction.386,5-11,3-2-2-2-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-2-11,4-1-11,3-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-122222-11215,1-2-2-2-1-2-1-12-1System will be managed by the farmers, and ownership-feeling among the farmers, due to construction process, will probably decrease enforcing costs.-1Brahmins, Chhetris, Tharus, Tamang-1-1This system is still under construction, so labor mobilization is for construction of the system.-1-1-1-1The system is still under construction. Presently there is a KULO NIRMAN SAMITI (WUO) looking after resource mobilization and supervision of the construction work. The command area of this system is mostly upland. It is expected that this system will perform well, based on the fact that the WUG can perform well due to its leadership and the ownerhsip feeling among the farmers.-1-1-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-15-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-15-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1800-1
201,211992-24-250,51,51,54,54,54,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,57,52,51,5100,5-22,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,55,55,55,54,55,52,5110,54,550,52,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21221,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Due to constant lack of funds for maintenance, and the absence of an equitable water sharing system, the potential of the canal has not been utilized to the extent possible. Further, recently due to absence of monitors the situation has been aggravated.-2Yield.Brahmin, Chhetri, Kumal and Newar4,53,5Management committee has been unable to make any decision. Recenlty however, it began to mobilize labor on an area basis. But how much the committee could achieve is yet to be seen.3,52,53,51,5In the lack of reliable water supply, farmers keep changing from Bari to Khet and again from Khet to Bari, so the construction of field channels did not follow systematically. In recent years, because of constant lack of funds for maintenance, committee (WUO) has been appearing as an active organization for canal management. DOI has been limited to the provision of DHALPA and to supervise maintenance work when there is a budget available. The Dhalpa post has been abolished recently but the WUO has not taken over the operation and maintenance of the system.199,5195,50,57,51,51,52,522060036300700301100002100001102500653101500754-1-1-1-1
202,22199119953WUA was formed in 1981. In 1982 hume pipes were installed in Bilmolde Khola.40,52,51,53,53,54,52,52,54,51,51,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,54,52,54,51000,53,52,5-22,52,52,52,52,52,5-2-22,51,52,55,54,51,55,51,5-2-2170,54,56,51,56,52,52,51,501000.51,51222,2-2-2-21,5The tailend farmers don't get any water.There is a lot of loss of water during conveyance and no permanent headworks at Khalte Khola. farmers complain that the width of main canal is small, operation and maintenance done by DOI is not done in right time(as per the farmers' cropping calendar)........1,52,51,5Because of poor condition of main canal, tailenders do not get adequate water.Transaction cost is high.Cropping intensity, crop yield.Brahmins, Chhetris, Magar.4,52,5For emergency repair beyond the capacity of Dhalpas, local people are hired to do the job, and payment for such work is made later on by funds made available by the DIHM regional office.4,53,53,51,5To hand over the responsibility of management to users would improve the efficiency of this canal. There is no possibility of increasing cropping intensity by improving the maintenance and management of the system. Even though there is no water rights disputes at the intake, when there is an inadequate water supply, farmers of the lower canal come to break the intake to get more water (DHALPA's report). Due to the dishonesy of DALPHA and his presence, the farmers do not participate in the maintenance of the canal.102,5100,50,23,55,51,55,530000100400001001406003406003200098400001002,3-1-1-1-1
203,111987-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF1,31,31,34,32,33,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,3-11,31,3-11,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-1-1-1-1-14,3-1-1-116,51,51,31,2-1-1-1-122222-11223,1-2-2-2-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF-2-22,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFPahadi and Tibeto-Burman-1-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF4,34,33,32,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UF-1-10,20,40-1-12-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
205,211991-28In 1961, rules and regulations were codified, and an irrigation committee was formed.120,51,51,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5200,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,52,54,55,51,5-2-2110,54,53,51,59,52,5-2-2105,51225,2-2-2-22,5The sharecroppers2,52,51,5Organizational efficiency, structural deficiency, water adequacy, reliability, and equity are the criteria. It is maintained that organizational efficiency compensates for the structural deficiency.The intake and the earlier portion of main canal are extremely difficult to build and fix.Water adequacy, reliability.Brahmins, Chettris, Newars, Magars and Gurungs1,52,5Until 1961, managed by the family of Bhanu Bhakta. In 1961, rules and regulations were codified, and they are operated by the farmers. All farmers are responsible for maintenance except committee members having less than 0.25 hectares. Farm channels are maintained individually. Labor is mobilized during crises.3,52,53,51,5Effective farmers' organization with rules and regulations (block management). Good cooperation among farmers.205,5147,50,47,55,51,55,5290000103-1-140-1-111000011000023-1-12-135-1-12-15200,5100000,5-1
206,11199019903-1218,52,31,32,32,31,32,32,3-1-11,5-1-12,5-1-2-11,35,51,32,3750,51,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,52,34,32,51,54,3-1-1-1317,55,52,31,32,51,52,51,5102221,31226,1-2-2-22,3-2-2-21,2-1-1-1Pahadi, Tibeti-Burman1,52,3-12,32,32,31,3-1210,5210,5-12,70,5-2-131008208310082081550451550452390025662390025664,87100,5-130000,5-1
207,21199119903-220,52,51,52,52,55,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,51,5-2-2-21,57,51,51,50,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,54,55,54,55,51,5-2-237,52,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21227,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Shift in the cultivation practice from cereals to cash crops like potato. farmers have to pay for fuel to lift water, thus economic return to per unit of investment increased.-2There is heavy percolation and seepage from the canal. The gradient of the canal is low. Given these features, a diesel pump is not considered efficient for the scheme.Pahadi1,52,5The regular cleaning of the field channels and branches are done by individual farmers at the time of irrigation.2,52,53,52,5Due to the high cost of diesel, the farmers use pump sets only for irrigation vegetables, wheat and potato crops.2552550,526,51,50,530010000300100002104545210454521000000210000005,4-2-2-2-1
208,21199019902Improvement in the literacy level and direct economic effect.67,51,51,51,52,51,51,52,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,573,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,54,51,51,54,52,53,51,573,53,52,51,51,5-1-2-100000.5-21228,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Economic upliftment - 6 to 12 months food availability for majority of small farmers.Transaction costs - not increased.Productivity increased, Cropping Intensity increased. Loan repaid.Tibeto-Burmen, Magars and Gurungs.4,52,5The absentees during the annual cleaning are not charged any penalty, nonetheless they contribute twice the labour in the next work on the system.2,52,52,53,5-1218,5218,50,841,340,5-20,5300250753002507511000011000027500025275000252,4200,5200,51000,5-1
209,11199019902-1390,52,31,3-12,32,53,32,3-1-12,5-1-13,31,3-1-11,3-13,31,32350,22,32,3-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,53,54,32,52,54,31,3-1-1318,55,5-11,3-1-122222-11229,1-2-2-21,3Farmers from tail portion-1-12,3-1-1-1Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetriya1,52,5-12,32,32,32,5-1300,5300,5-1-111-12257522575110011002307023070-1400,3-1
210,11199019902-125,52,31,32,3-22,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-11,3-13,31,3-11,32,3-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,2-1-14,3-1-14,3-1-1-146,52,5-11,3-1-1-1-122222-11230,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-12,3-1-1-1Brahmin, Chhetriya, Tamang4,5-1-12,32,32,3-1-1260,5260,5-1-10,5-1-1871387131881288127510157510154-130,5350,5-1
211,11199019903-120,52,51,34,44,33,32,32,3-1-1-1-1-11,5-1-1-11,36,53,31,31600,21,32,3-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-14,34,3-14,34,3-1-1-1154,54,5-11,3-1-1-1-122222-11231,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-12,3-1-1-1Pahadi and Tibeto-Burman1,53,3-13,33,33,3-1-1167,5167,5-1-1-1-1-140000100400001001346601346602340033332340033333,7100,51200,5-1
212,11199019902-150,52,51,3-1-12,31,32,2-1-13,5-1-12,5-2-1-11,3-13,31,3250,31,32,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,32,34,31,52,34,3-1-1-161,53,33,31,3-1-1212221,31232,1-2-2-22,3-1-1-12,3-1-1-1Brahmin, Chhetriya, Tharu1,52,3-12,32,32,31,3There is a high potential for growing spring crops if adequate moisture is available. There has been a significant change in the cropped area covered by HYVs of rice and no change is observed in wheat and maize.200,5200,51,367,1-1-1-135788357881604016040248401224840122,6-1-1-1-1
213,11199019902-1252,52,31,32,32,32,32,3-1-1-12,51,3-13,3-1-1-11,36,33,3-16300,31,5-102. Mrz-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,54,35,31,52,54,3-1-1-1225,55,54,31,32,51,32,51,3212221,31233,1-2-2-22,3-1-13,32,3-1-1-1Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetriya1,52,5-12,32,32,31,3-1198,5198,51,12214,33,3-13118931189155451554524234213242342133,3100500-1
214,41199019901-170,52,51,51,51,52,52,53,51,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,54,52,53,5700,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,54,54,51,55,51,5-2-2117,54,54,51,51,51,51,51,501000.51,51234,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Due to improvement managment production per unit area has increased.LowUse of improved varites of crops.Chhetri, Brahmin, Tamang, Maajhi1,52,5One day equivalent of labor - on household basis. More than one day equivalent of labor - on per hectare of land basis.1,51,52,51,5Farmers do not appear to be interested any more in rehabilitating the scheme with their financial contribution. Investment in a new intake is not considered worth the cost and efforts.253,5253,50,643,51,50,524003003024003003011000011000028500015285000156,5-1-1-1-1
215,211990-22-113,52,51,53,3-22,31,52,31,32,31,31,3-12,5-1-1-11,36,33,31,3-12,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,32,53,34,31,53,34,32,3-1-132,51,51,51,3-1-1-2-21235,2-2-2-2-1-2-1-12,3-1-1-1Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang, Newar1,33,3-13,32,33,31,3-1201,5201,50,43-1-1-1-136535653518020802021917641917644-1
216,11199019902-114,52,51,32,33,33,31,32,3-1-1-1-11,3-1-1-1-11,3-13,3-132,21,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,3-12,34,32,3-14,32-1-116,51,5-11,3-1-1-1-11236,1-2-2-22,3-2-1-12,3-1-1-1Pahadi4,5-1If a member is not able to join he has to send a hired laborer.2,32,33,31,3It was told that farmers form WUC more for recovery of due from CARE/N than for regulating water. WUC is largely inactive and all decision regarding irrigation are taken at SFDP group meetings.257,5257,1-1-1-1-1-138614386141792119212791382791384,8660120-1
217,11199019903-150,52,3-1-13,33,32,32,31,32,31,31,31,31,3-2-2-21,3-13,31,3300,31,52,5-21,32,31,31,32,3-1-1-12,3-12,34,3-1-14,3-1-1-1100,54,33,51,3-1-1-1-112222-11237,1-2-2-2-1-12,3-12,3-1-1-1Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetriya1,5-1For simple repairs apart from the regular, each household sends a member.1,32,32,31,3At present, farmers have attempted to use many lowland areas for fish farming. From such areas hardly one crop of lowland rice was harvested before. But now these areas have produced double cropping (early rice and fish in summer).280,5280,5-1-1-1-1-1252955851518515851052851055,7-1-1-1-1
218,21199019902-2.134,51,51,52,53,52,51,53,51,52,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,51,5574,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,53,54,55,52,5-2-1-1-1250,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21238,2-2-2-22,5-12,51,31,5Community organized and legally recognized. Appears to run well. Good production and cropping intensity.Local issues decided locally but they had to proceed to the district office with a lawsuit against one individual who refuses to pay his loan share.Efficient and good production. Farmers paying off large amounts of loan.Tharus, Muslim and Madhise1,53,5-12,52,52,51,5The system was reorganized in 1991. Registered with the Chief District Office. Strong officers and group solidarity. Appears to be running well.300,4263,40,59,55,51,50,5250050003052515551100001100001330155201250155285-1-1-1-1
219,2119922-215,52,51,52,55,52,52,53,51,52,53,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,31,5152,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,54,54,54,5-21,5-2-276,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21239,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,52,5Increase in crop production per unit area-2Increase in production per unit areaPahadi4,52,5Labor mobilization for regular cleaning of the canal is done twice a year.2,52,54,51,5The physical system is in bad condition. Many cracks developed and the lined part of the canal. Canal walls have fallen down in many places. Due to land slides, about 7 m canal fell down recently about 200 m down stream from canal.284,5264,50,440,90,5-20,5300940634090061100001100002600030102500020305,2-140,5500,5-1
220,11199019903-110,52,51,32,33,32,33,3-1-1-1-1-1-11,5-1-1-11,37,33,31,3590,21,52,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2,3-1-14,3-14,54,3-1-1-137,52,5-11,3-1-1-1-122222-11240,1-2-2-2-1-1-1-12,3-1-1-1-14,53,3Farmers with large landholdings are required to participate more than once if major repair works are required.2,32,32,33,3-1300,5300,5-12-1-1-1300100003001000015842015842021000000210000005-160,5100,5-1
221,2119902-2.21,52,51,52,51,52,52,53,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,56,51,53,52400,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,53,52,52,54,54,54,52,525,42,562,53,54,51,51,51,50,5-210006,51241,2-2-2-21,5Farmers at the tail end rarely got any water.1,51,51,5The system appears to heve been badly designed and managed from the beginning.HighHigh rate of improved seeds utilization, effective extension services.80% Brahmins and Chhetri, 15% Tamang, 5% other.1,53,5The canal was built with a small slope, farmers say the slow miving water drops a lot of sediment which requires much more labor.3,53,52,51,5There is a lawsuit currently between two groups of the Committee. One side claims the other made a contract too high so that the farmers cannot pay. The contractor is demanding interest now since he has not been paid, he would not accept payment without interest. Farmers are highly suspicious of ADB/N's involvement. Technical layout of system seems to be faulty both according to slope of canal and the quantity of water that can be delevered.2252250,52,311,525300100003001000016533216533232600074326000744,660-1
223,2119907100,52,51,53,53,53,51,52,51,51,53,51,51,43,51,51,51,51,45,32,41,5900,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,54,53,55,52,5603,5285,55,53,51,51,51,51,51,501000.56,51252,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5improved ise of seeds and fertilizers.-2-The efficiency of the system is increased due to improved use of fertilizers but not in the improvement of water availability.Pahadi (Brahmins, Chhetries, Kami and Jankis)1,53,52,52,52,51,5-2-2351650,62,201,50300035653000010011000021000021000000365000355,24-1
224,211991432,51,51,55,55,5-21,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,31,51,53,52,44,464,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,43,43,43,4-22,5-2-255,53,53,41,5-2-2-2-210000.51253,2-2-2-22,52,52,52,4-1Use of improved seeds only (for maize).Brahmins, Chhetris (80%), Darais (fishermen) 20%1,52,5-22,53,53,42,5300,5240,50,41,951,502600400024002004011000011000028010010026010010206,4-1-1-1-1
226,211990420,51,51,51,51,5-21,52,51,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,41,51,54,52,54,540,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,43,43,53,3-22,5-1-168,53,53,41,5-1-1-1-110000.51255,2-2-2-22,52,52,52,4-1Use of improved seeds and fertilizers.Magars, Brahmin, Chhetri1,52,41,51,51,53,52751850,61,801,501-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-16,2-1-1-1-1
227,111990820,52,41,52,5-22,41,52,51,52,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,54,52,42,426,51,42,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,42,44,45,52,43,45,51,3-2-2523,53,51,521,521,510000.46,51256,1-2-2-22,5-22,32,42,4-2-2Increase in the yields due to improved varieties. Changes in cropping practices and use of chemical fertilizers.Brahmins, Chhetris, Newars (72%). Others: Kami, Damai.4,52,51,41,51,53,42152450,55-101,50200500501100000011000011000026500035100045556,43-1
228,1119909200,52,51,52,51,5-21,52,51,52,51,41,53,42,51,51,51,51,54,52,42,53001,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,45,52,53,45,52,5-1-1650,56,56,51,57,52,51,51,501001.56,51257,1-2-2-22,4-22,52,52,5-2-1Changes in the cropping pattern (improved crops acreage) due to availability of reliable water during off-seasons.Brahmins 60%, Gurungs 25%, Chhetris, Newars, Sarkis 15%, others 10%1,52,51,51,51,51,42022020,84,501,50348-120-1-1348-12011110000110000328-1-17-1328-1-17-14,6-1
229,1119907100,52,51,5-23,4-22,42,41,52,51,51,44,33,51,51,51,51,54,42,34,4100,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,42,34,35,44,33,35,42,5603,4410,55,53,41,41,51,51,51,511000.46,51258,1-2-2-22,4-22,42,42,4-2Better use of improved varieties of crops.Brahmins, Chhetris, Sudras (Kami, Sarki)1,53,42,42,42,42,42451241,503-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-13,44-1
231,2119924175,52,51,51,51,52,51,53,52,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,52,50,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,54,55,51,55,51,5-2-2240,55,53,51,41,51,51,51,510001,51260,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Well run system, farmers well organized, adquate source, committee makes all decisions.LowUse of improved varieties and chemical fertilizers to increase agricultural outputs.Pahadis (Brhamins and Chhetris)1,51,5Due to proximity of the system to the big industrial district of Hetauda, labor is heavily replaced by cash payments and labor mobilized is hired by WUG who may or may not be appropriators.1,51,51,51,5The system is well run. There are extensive records covering years of operations. The director and secretory are younger men with plenty of public enthusiasm, money is raised among members to pay for workers for cleaning the canal.3003000,16210,51,52,511000000110000001100001100001751001501751001505,6-1
232,12199121030,53,51,51,52,51,51,53,54,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-22,52,5-24,53,50,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,54,55,55,54,53,51,5-2-2-1-16,5-127,54,527,54,501000.51,51261,1-2-2-21,5Farmers at same distance from the canals are taking water from the system through hand dug canals. Not getting enough water.2,32,51,5No idea who and how many appropriators there are. Water sent on demand. No farmer maintenance. No collected fees.High costs, must contact office but that is easier now because of telephones.Low efficiency. Tremendous expense, 3/4 of the water wasted during the winter season.Brahmins-21,5No labor mobilized from among the farmers2,53,52,51,5This project cost Rs 550,000,000 to build, or, neglecting the 5 megawatts produced, costs Rs 500,000 per ha. There is no knowledge about how the farmers are using the water or how many there are or who they are. The service area is in a growing urban area where farmland is being converted rapidly into residential, commercial, and industrial uses.185,5175,50,25475,31,525,5110000901000010011000011000016000152516000152551100,51100,51100,5-1
233,1119911280,52,51,52,53,51,51,53,54,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,55,54,54,5-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,52,53,54,51,53,52,51000,57,5-1-11,51,5-2-2-2-200000.5-21262,1-2-2-22,52,51,5To do anything on canal, must seek approal from office.High initial investment: Rs30,000,000 -- about Rs23,000/ha. System bears most of the cost of the operation.Brahmin and Chhetri, Gurung4,52,5Khet Ko Kulo cleaned by farmers who use that Kulo. They don't clean main and branch canals.2,43,52,51,5225,5225-1-1-11,5-12250250502250250501100002100001600015251600015255,53000,53000,56000,5-1
234,12199119953-1220,51,51,54,54,52,51,53,53,51,51,51,54,54,51,51,52,51,56,51,54,5900,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,54,55,55,54,54,55,51,5-2-2300,55,56,51,5-12,510,52,501000.51,51263,1-2-2-21,5Tailenders are not getting adequate supply, even during monsoon.1,52,51,5Organization is not effective. Canal clogged with silt.HighNo new variet introduced. CI has not increased.Kumal, Brahmin, Chhetri, Dami1,53,5-24,54,54,52,5-2200,5100,50,21,252,51,525,51500095300001001100002100001250007530001992,9-1-140000,5-1
235,121991Begnas Dam has been built and it has substantially580,51,51,51,51,51,51,53,53,51,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,51,55,52,54,502,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,5-22,55,51,52,55,5-15,5-13000,58,56,51,57,52,57,52,501000.51,51264,1-2-2-21,5The new canal has deprived some people of water.1,52,51,5New organization. Just getting started. Water supply has increased for most farmers. Increased production in most areas.Local organization and guards watch resoruce closely.. AGO does not perform maintenance. Punishment handled locally. Other problems refered to office.Seems fairly efficient.Brahmin, Chhetri-2-2Labor for cleaning of canal not contributed.2,53,51,51,5280,5240,5113,83,51,520,521007501540075025110000210000180001553350030356,4-1-1-1-1
236,111991-24-2161,51,51,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,53,51,51,51,5-2-2-21,56,51,52,5150,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,54,55,51,51,55,51,5-2-2140,54,52,51,51,51,51,51,500010.56,51265,1-2-2-22,51,52,5-21,5Improved use of seed, introduction of vegetables and winter crops.-2Increase in the productivity of crops.Tharu4,54,5-22,52,52,51,5-2190,5190,51490,51,50,53000010030000100110000110000260100201026010020105,2-1-1-1-1
237,211991-24-21000,42,52,53,31,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,31,55250,43,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,54,5-21,5-22,525,51,550,55,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21266,1-2-2-22,5-22,4-21,4Well-organized irrigation committee, rules are equitable and apparently followed by all members. Because of time and effort required to maintain intake and approach canal, command area and distribution system have been neglected.Farmers confidence in leader reduces enforcement costs.Farmers perceive water in irrigation system as adequate, reliable, equitable. Concern on positive management of command area and distribution system as well as on drainage and wild animals (rhinocerous, wild pigs, deer).Brahmins, Chhetris, Dunwars, Darais, Chepang, Tamang4,52,5According to chairman, $810 was collected in penalties. Two peons need not contribute labor for maintenance. Last winter (1985) 350 laborers worked for 7 days to link the approach canal with Rapti River and 8 days to erect the diversion.2,52,52,52,5Equitable, adequate, and reliable system. Efficient farmers organization: high participation. High potential productivity due to the technical knowledge such as radio program. Disadvantage of converting uplands to paddy lands due to less fertile soil.300,5300,50,51130,41,52,5210000002100000011000011000010250750102507509,2-1-11600,5-1
238,1119921992230,51,51,51,54,52,51,53,5-11,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,55,51,53,5350,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,53,54,54,52,54,51,5-2-242,52,54,51,51,51,50,5-201000.56,51267,1-2-2-21,5People at tail end are not able to get enough water.1,52,51,5System is well run and according to farmers the system is beneficial but the tail end farmers are not able to get enough water.-1Increased production but expenssive (about 60000 per ha. to built).Pahadi1,52,5-22,52,52,52,5Contractor, engineers and overseer skimmed money when the project was under construction, canal leaks and not as efficient or productive as it could be.300,4205,40,740,51,510,52500500030050951100002100002750025037500250-2-1-1-1-1
239,2119912361,51,51,51,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,5800,52,52,5-2-22-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,54,54,55,52,5-22,5-11,533,52,511,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51268,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5System is well maintained, substantial numbers of farmers are involved in maintenance. Water is adequate. During water shortages, water distribution is rotated.All decisions are made locally. Quickly.Highly efficient. For the effort they put in, 300% cropping intensity.Tharu, Bahun1,52,5Raise a substantial amount of labor to repair Kulo and dam.2,51,52,52,5Well run system. Labor is readily supplied and farmers have agreement on rules, which they re-affirm or re-new every year.300,5300,51412,51,58,52100000021000000110000210000155090015509009,2-1-1-1-1
240,111991205. Apr1051,51,51,51,51,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,51,5-22-21,54,51,52,50,53,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,51,52,55,51,55,52,555,43,588,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21269,1-2-2-22,52,52,51,5This system appears to be well run, people have made their own rules and enforce them. Water disribution is equitable.3-4 meetings a year. Monitoring and sanctioning done locally, often personally. Transaction costs low.For investment they have made, they have additional income.Thakuri, Tharu, Chhetri, Brahmin, Yogi1,52,5Collect fine of Rs35 if one does not attend labor day. Land basis.1,51,51,53,5The system works well.200,51,517-1-11,5050095050095110000100001800020080002005,4-1-1-1-1
241,1119912227,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,52,51,56030,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,53,55,55,54,51,5-22,525,51,5200,54,51,51,5-2-2-2-222222.5-21270,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Seems to be well run, good organization and well defined rules.All decisions are made by local committee. Punishment given to rule breakers said to be quick and effective.Appears to be efficiently runBrahmin, Chhetri, Darai1,52,52,52,52,54,5220,5220,51210,51,51,51100000021000000110000110000100010901000109011,7-1-1-1-1
242,111991-24-2280,51,51,51,51,53,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,51,5470,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,55,54,55,52,560,53,5235,55,53,51,51,51,51,51,500010.56,51271,1-2-2-22,5-22,51,51,5increase in production in all the field.-2increase in cropping intensity and productivity per unit of area.Chhetri (50%), Brahmin (30%), Gurung and Magar1,52,5Disproporionate labor mobilization: tailenders have to clean canal from head up to their field while headenders only have to clean up to main canal.2,51,52,51,5-2300,5300,51,23,35,51,50,5200100003001000011000011000022000800220008008,9-2-1
243,219915149,51,51,53,53,53,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,5250,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,55,54,51,55,51,5-2-2170,54,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21272,2-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Loose but well run system. Water is sufficient and cropping intensity is 300%. Maintenance work certainly doesn't overwelm the farmers.All decisions made locally. Quickly. Low transaction costs. Peon informs of problems.High output for minimum input of labor.Tharu, Pahadi1,52,52,52,52,53,5The system runs well although not with a whole lot of effort. High group solidarity among Tharus plus plentitude of water makes for relatively easy time.300,5300,51,5720,51,52,5210000002100000011000011000010001000100010005-1-1-1-1
244,111991-24-2135,52,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,51,54,51,51,5400,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,51,52,5-21,5-2-2150,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510010.51,51273,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,51,5Increase in production in all the field-2cropping intensity increased, productivity increasedTharu, Brahmins, Rai, Danwar1,52,5Increases punishment according to severity of default.2,51,52,53,5-2290,5300,50,8520,51,55,51100000021000000110000110000102556010201558007,5-1-1-1-1
245,111992-27-218,51,51,52,53,51,51,53,51,51,54,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,550,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,54,51,55,51,5-2-242,52,53,51,51,51,51,51,500010.56,51274,1-2-2-22,5-2-22,51,5Cropping intensity, increasing productivity, transaction cost low, water supply reliable, transportation.Low transaction costs, all decisions are made locally.System easy to maintain now that the headworks are permanent.Newar (16%), Magar (15%), Chhetri (545%), Brahmin (15%), Kumal (10%)1,54,51 per household, reg. maintenance/ro. 2 per household, reg. maintentance for above 5 ropanis.1,51,51,51,5Well run system, low transaction costs.222,5217,51,32,10,51,52,5210000002100000011000011000012000278115002836,7-1-1-1-1
246,111991-22not in Rbase, only in Access, UF43,51,3-15,45,45,4-1-14,21,3-1-1-14,31,31,3-1-1-1-11,3-1-1-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-1-13,3-1-1-1-11,3-2-249,52,511,3-12,31,32,31,31000-11275,1-2-2-2-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF-1-11,4not in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFnot in Rbase, only in Access, UFBrahmins, Chhetris4,52,3not in Rbase, only in Access, UF3,33,34,3-1not in Rbase, only in Access, UF-1-11,343,3-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-12-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-1
248,1119925-1300,51,51,52,32,32,32,5-1-1-1-1-1-12,31,31,51,51,55,51,53,3-11,52,5-21,51,5-11,52,51,5-1-12,5-1-1-11,5-14,5-1-1-1300,55,5-1-1-1-1-1-122222.3-11277,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-22-1-1-1-11,52,5-11,51,51,51,5-1-1-1110-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-13-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
249,111991-21Two deep tubewells601,51,52,32,31,51,53,42,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,57,51,52,4270,41,32,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,43,34,55,51,55,5-1-1-150,52,53,31,51,51,51,51,510010.31,51278,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-21,4The author addresses issues of water adequacy (sufficient for monsoon crops), reliability and equity (water for tubewells charged WHEN water enters field), etc.Transaction costs low except with regard to requests for outside assistance.Does not discuss efficiency.Pahadi6,54,52,42,42,43,4System seems well run. Logain is one of three villages served, activities among the three are coordinated by higher committees - Tin Gaon and Banganga committees. Water was insufficient for wheat cultivation so two deep tubewells have been sunk.250,4250,41,2-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-111000011000022-1-1-1-12-1-1-1-1-19,98-1-1-1-1
250,11199219953-25000,31,51,53,52,51,52,53,54,51,53,54,51,51,51,51,51,51,52,53,53,5-13,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,51,52,52,53,54,53,51,5-2-232000,59,511,51,510,42,53,41,510001,51279,1-2-2-21,5The plan of augmenting the flow of Khageri canal through Narayani Lift Irrigation scheme(NLIS) could not be implemented due to shortage of water and silt problem in NLIS which created some disadvantage to mid and tailenders.1,52,51,5The main problem of the system is poor and untimely maintenance of the main and branch canals by DOI, and the poor coordination between the appropriators and DOI officials.-1-1Brahmin, Chhetry and Gurung4,51,5Since the repair and maintenance of the main and branch canal have been done by chitwan Irrigation Project, the appropriators contribute their labor to repair and maintain the tertiary canal only.2,52,52,51,5Untimely repair and maintenance coupled with poor care and supervision by both DOI and the appropriators have lowered down the performance of the system.3003001,2135,51,55,522054015204010501030280200280200330132253043013233107,5-1-19300,5-1
251,11199319952448,52,53,52,52,52,54,51,53,52,51,51,57,51,52,5100,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,55,55,52,53,54,51,5-2-2316,55,55,51,52,51,51,51,510001,51280,11,5Specially during the rotation process of water supply tailenders become disadvantaged.1,53,5Kurmi Chaudhary(50%), Yadav, Giri, Muslim(3%)1,52,52,52,53,52,5170,5140,51,41311,5440000100400001001100001100001500020302300010604,33-1-1400,544844844804481804480268
252,11199319952Different feeder roads have been constructed in the villages.475,52,51,51,52,53,51,51,53,52,51,51,55,51,52,52520,42,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,55,53,55,52,57,51,5386,55,511,51,56,52,56,52,5106,51281,12,5-22,52,5Tharu 90%, Pahadi 10%1,52,51,52,52,51,5200,5200,51,41623,52,5300001004000010011000021000024000600380002005,7-1-1900000,5-1
253,11199319954-2750,43,53,52,51,52,51,51,53,52,51,51,55,51,54,51930,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,54,54,54,55,51,5-2-21100,37,48,51,54,51,51,51,51100105,51282,1-2-2-22,5-22,53,5Tharu (60%), Yadav (10%)1,52,5An agreement of cleaning the main canal by DIO and secondary canals by farmers has been made.2,51,53,53,5The elevation of the headend land is higher than the bed level of canal. Consequently, headenders receive supply when there is abundant supply in the canal. On the other hand, tailenders receive adequate supply.205,5202,50,6720,451,52300509530020981901001100002501004002401005003,6-1-1-1-1
254,11199319952During 1983/84 water right of getting supply from Harnaiya headworks to this system was established.3350,42,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,51,57,51,54,53,52,5-22,52,52,52,51,51,51,52,52,54,55,55,52,55,51,5-2-22000,47,58,51,51,51,51,51,510001,52283,1284.1-2-21,5Tail enders receive water supply during winter season only1,53,5Madhise, Pahadi4,52,51,53,52,52,52101751,520,5201,523001009040000100110000310000185001502500025254,35-1-1-1-1
255,11199319957AMIS, constructed 5 years ago300,44,54,54,52,52,54,51,51,54,51,52,57,51,52,5300,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,55,53,55,51,5-2-2550,46,53,51,51,51,51,51,5106,51285,1-2-2-22,5-2-23,5Madhise4,53,52,52,53,51,5115,4110,40,8821,4101,5540000100400001001100001100002100058545005903,7-1-1-1-1
256,11199319952Institutional development process is in progress to have ownership feeling among the appropriators.1272,53,53,52,52,52,51,52,51,51,5-22,56,53,54,5-21,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,52,55,55,55,55,55,51,5-2-22000,37,56,532,54,532,54,510001,51286,1-2-2-21,5Taileders are always disadvantaged due to inadequate supply of water in the canal.2,53,5Madhise1,51,5Farmers are required to clean, repair and operate the tertiary level structures according to the rules formulated in the laws and bye-laws of Water Users' Organization.3,54,53,52,5200,5200,50,8519201,51400001004000010018515026040025000500335006504,1-1-11284,5-1
257,11199319952-2797,53,52,51,52,51,51,52,51,5-22,57,52,51,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-23,53,54,53,55,54,55,52,550,42,52000,37,36,51,526,44,515,43,510002,51287,1-2-2-21,5Bairawa VDC ward nos. 1, 3 and 5 never get water and there is flooding problem during heavy rains.2,53,4Madhise1,51,5-23,52,52,52,5The performance is poor after instituting multi-party system. There is a significant negative impact of politics on irrigation management issues.165,4165,40,41621,504000010040000100270201027020102600015252600015254,4-1-11105,5-1
258,11199319952-23200,53,52,52,53,52,53,51,53,54,5-2-2-23,53,55,54,56753,42,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,5-23,53,5-24,51,5-2-22700,38,46,51,518,53,518,53,510002,51288,12,5-22,5-2Madhise (95%), Pahadi (5%)4,51,5-22,52,52,52,5-2248,4185,4120011,5523022165022500075110000110000170502322500100405,6-1-1-1-1
259,1119931995332,51,51,52,51,5-212,51,51,51,52,52,51,54,51,51,52500-22,5-21,51,51,51,51,51,51,5-22,53,54,55,54,55,5-21,5-2-2-2-23,51,57,51,57,51,5110006,51289,10002,5-2-2-2Pahadi (Brahmin, Chhetries, Newar, Darai and Kumal)1,52,5The record is kept for labor mobilization.2,51,52,53,52752750,51,501,523001000030010000110000110000250250025250250025-1-1-175757503232754343
260,11199319952-215,43,5-22,53,53,51,51,54,52,51,51,54,52,51,5100,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,53,54,55,55,5-25,52,53,51,513,51,51,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-21290,1-2-2-21,5The head enders always violate the rules, especially the water turn which seriously affects the tailenders.1,51,5Brahmin4,51,5It is mobilized on household basis as and when required.In this case, one headend farmer never attends, but the absentees can not be punished due to political problem2,52,52,51,5The return would be better if headenders allow equitable water to the tailenders.130,3130,31401,50330110863301108611000011000021510084215100845,42-1
261,11199319952-240,52,52,52,51,52,54,51,54,53,51,51,53,54,51,5365,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,53,55,52,55,55,52,540,52,5145,54,56,52,51,51,5-2-20-21291,1-2-2-21,5Tailenders due to space problem.2,52,5Kumal, Brahmin and Gurung1,52,52,52,52,51,5To facilitate the tailenders WUO has adopted rotation system but it is not strictly followed. The amount of water is also decreasing year by year. Some of the potential area is not included into the service area.113,4237,40,9411,5153513091401600391100002100003310096475100248,89-1-150000,5-1
262,111993199524,54,52,51,53,52,51,52,52,51,52,57,54,52,540,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,52,55,52,52,52,51,5-2-232,52,56,51,51,51,51,51,501000.52,51292,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmin (Pahadiya)4,52,5Labour mobilization is on household basis. The record of labor contribution is kept by the branch committee.2,53,53,54,5The system is too sophisticated and less suitable to the topography of the appropriation resource. The soil is very loose and the terain is vulnerable to soil erosion. The soil type is extremeley disturbed due to the removal of top soil with the intention of conversion of bari land to khet land.260,4260,40,61,250303007502530075025110000110000175001015175001015-1250074000-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
263,12199319952-2130,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,51,52,51,51,54,52,52,550,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,52,55,51,52,55,5-2-2-2450,45,53,51,51,51,51,51,510001,51293,1-2-2-22,5-2-23,5Pahadi1,52,52,52,52,52,5295,5300,50,53,5101,58,5300950540010000266340220800260100300280501054500300830-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
264,12199319951-22803,52,51,51,53,51,52,51,52,51,51,53,52,51,5100,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,52,53,5-25,5-21,5-2-2400,45,51,51,5-2-2-2-20-21294,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmin, Kumale (Pahadiya)1,53,5Records are available for mobilization during construction of the field channels. However, records of labour mobilization for repair and maintenance is not yet practiced.1,51,52,53,5There is no difference in water distribution between head and tailenders. The importance of the irrigation at this stage is very high.246,4-113,51,51,51,521808002-1-1-1-1-1-1125732-1-1-1-1125002550-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
265,1119931995440,33,54,52,53,52,51,51,51,51,5-21,57,52,51,5120,43,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,55,5-22,51,5-2-225,52,56,51,57,52,52,51,510002,51295,1-2-2-22,5-2-21,5Madhise4,51,52,53,53,51,5215,4215,41,3520,553,503250007532500075210000210000240100401024010040103-1-1-1-1
266,11199319952Few tertiary canals have been constructed to replace the old ones.134,41,52,51,53,51,54,51,54,54,54,5-22,5-22,54,5-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,54,5-23,51,5-2-2200,45,46,51,55,51,54,51,510002,51296,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Madhise4,51,5Appropriators sometimes contribute their labors to maintain the tertirary canal.2,53,52,5-2-2240,4-115173,5134000060-1-1-1-1-1-1110000-1-1-1-126000400-1-1-1-1-1-15,4-12600-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
267,11199319952-12,52,54,52,52,53,51,53,52,51,51,57,52,54,53720,41,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,53,54,53,51,5-2-2500,35,38,51,5324,5324,510001,51297,1-2-2-21,5Tailenders get untimely and inadequate supply2,51,5Pahadi (Brahmin, Chhetri)1,53,53,54,54,52,5250,4250,40,674,02101,51400500504005005025050025050033000700330007004,2-1-18600,5-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1
268,1119931995260-2-244233121-2-24-2-212-24315012-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2234,54,55532-2-240056,51,51,51,51,51,510001,511Because the field channels have not been constructed so far, the farmers who own their land far from the canal get water only when the field on the upper side get fully saturated. Some times the farmers at the upper side do not let the water flow from their field. The farmers at the lower side ....2,52,5-2-2-2-2Madhise4,53,5-23,52,53,52,5-21951950,5135104001010804001010802901003901003405035203405035204,3-2-2-2-1200-10600-1-1-1
269,11199319952300-1-12,51,51,51,53,52,51,52,5-1-11,5-1-1-22,5-22,54,5-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,54,54,5-24,51,5-21,530008,56,51,521,521,510001,51299,11Because the tertiary and field channels are still under construction, the rules are not fully established. The tail enders are reported to suffer.2,51,5-1-1-1-1Muslim, Kurmi, Yadav and Brahmin5,53,5There are not clear rule for routine maintenance. In case of emergency the appropriators contribute equal labor for the repair and maintenance, particulartly the appropriation resource.3,52,52,51,5140,51400,338101,50400001004000010011000011000034000060340000604-1-1-1-1
270,11199319952-21500-1-14,52,51,52,53,53,51,51,5-1-11,5-1-1-22,5-22,53,5-11,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,53,55,53,51,5-2-22000,47,56,51,51,51,51,51,510001,51300,11,5Some farmers land is higher than the depth of the water course. Some water courses are so constructed that the water does not move in the field.000000Madhise-21,5The required labor for regular works is provided the project office. For emergency purpose, there was no basis for labor mobilization.2,53,52,53,5The cost of maintenance for the operation is very high. There are altogether 12 pumps in two pumphouses, having 6 pumps in each.150,5175,51,53521,5040000100400001001100001100003250025503500025254,1-1-1-1-1
272,11199319952400,42,52,52,52,52,54,51,51,53,51,51,54,52,54,5-13,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,54,52,52,54,5-1-2-21300,47,51,51,5-2-2-2-211,5Tail enders do not receive adequate supply of water in most of the time.2,52,5Brahmin-Chhetri(45%), Rai(35%), Newar(10%), Tamang(5%) and Others(5%)4,53,5So far the labor mobilization pattern is based on household, however, they(WUC) are proposing for landholding.2,53,52,51,52502000,25411,51250203041020701100011000360202035020304,8-117501155000-1400330400
273,1119937472,51,52,52,52,52,53,54,51,54,54,52,52,51,51,51,55,12,51,590-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,52,52,55,51,5-2-2953,53,51,511,511,510001,51303,12,5-22,53,5Brahmin, Tharu, Newar, Chhetri4,52,52,52,52,53,52003001371,50110-110-1-1127-1-1-1-1120-1-1127-1-11-1-1-1-120173512-1-14747470002,54,5
274,1119933?17,51,51,52,42,42,41,43,51,51,52,51,51,52,51,51,51,55,52,41,5130,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,52,55,51,535,52,51,51,5-2-2-2-202000.5-21304,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2Brahmins + Chhetris (95%), Magar (5%).4,53,5-22,42,42,41,51801550,331,561,512400001004000010021000021000042000104030415010304501400170247242,54,5
275,1119934-1271,51,52,52,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-21,57,52,51,5100,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,55,52,55,51,5-2-225,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,500000.56,51305,1-2-2-22-2-2Brahmin, Chhetri, Tharu, Newar4,54,5-12,42,42,43,52502200,51121,504-1-150-1-14-1-120-1-1110-1-11100-1-1250-11040-1250-11040-1-1-1-1-10272727002,54,5
276,1119933-186,52,51,52,52,52,52,53,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,51,54,52,52,51000,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,52,515,51,5146,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51306,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Brahmin + Chhetri (50%), Magar + Gurung (50%)4,54,5-12,52,52,53,52202100,67221,504-1-120-1804-1-110-1901100-1-11100-1-135051035-1360-11030-1-1-186-1-18619860672,54,5
277,1119933-270,52,51,52,51,51,51,43,51,52,52,51,52,52,51,51,41,51,51,52,5400,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,31,55,55,51,51,55,52,525,52,596,53,53,51,515,43,515,43,510000.54,51307,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2Brahmin, Gurung, Magar, Tamang4,52,5-11,42,42,41,53003000,333,332,51,510300100003001000011000011000027010020027000300-17070700707070002,54,5
278,1119933-114,52,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,5-22,51,51,52,5-21,51,5-1-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2-221,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21308,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Pahadi, Tibeto-Burman4,54,5At the headwork the labor is mobilized on the basis of household.3,52,53,51,53003000,67201,504-1-1100-104-1-1100-103100003100004-1-1-1100-14-1-1-11000-11414140140140142,54,5
279,1119933-1272,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,52,52,52,51,51,51,53,51,52,5120,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,51,51,55,51,5-2-240,52,53,51,51,51,51,51,510010.56,51309,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmin, Chhetri, Tamang, Darai, and Tharu4,54,5-12,52,52,42,52802700,331,3301,52,54006020204006010301100001100004400060-143000700-10270027004272,54,5
280,1119937-140,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-22,5-22,54,4100,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,55,45,5-21,50,5-2,535,52,51,51,50,5-2,50,5-2,500000.5-2,51310,5-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Tharu (50%), Brhamin+Chhetri (25%), Others (25%)4,54,5-22,52,52,53,5220210401320,41,540,44002020040020200110000210000440100300420525200-10-100400400402,54,5
281,1119935-2120,52,31,51,41,43,42,51,51,42,44,41,53,42,51,51,51,55,52,51,55800,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,55,55,51,45,5-22,51,51,55,44,51,51,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2-21311,1-2-2-21,5The headenders get more benefit than that of tailenders.1,5-2Brahmin (60%), Kumal (10%), Chhetri (10%), Newar (10%), Kami (5%), Darai4,52,4On On household basis. Intake repair and Maintenace: those with < .05 ha and > .05 ha contribute 5 days & as needed respectively3,52,52,52,53003000,6634,31,51,34-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-11-1-1-12-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-14-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-10133013301332,54,5
282,1119933-1-12,52345-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,55,52,560,53,5220,45,511,51,52,51,52,51,510000.51,51312,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2,5Tamang, Magar, Brahmin, Kshetri, Newar1,54,5Headwork and canal cleaning: Household basis. Repair and Maintenance: Landholding basis (Commodity payment).2,52,52,53,50,331,3319,41,510,4-109700400-12313231
283,1119937-166,42,51,52,52,52,52,53,52,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,54,51,52,5365,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,54,55,5-21,5-2-273,53,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51313,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2Tharu, Brahmins, Tamang, Magar.1,54,5-12,52,52,53,52502500,336,665-204500050045000050110000110000450020300460010300-1-1-1-106607710772,54,5
284,1119933-11412,51,52,52,52,52,53,52,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,51,57,52,52,54000,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,52,525,42,5241,55,54,51,58,42,48,42,410000.54,41314,5-2-2-22,5-1-2-2Brahmin + Kshetri (50%), Magar (30%), Gurung (10%), Giri and others (10%).1,52,5-12,52,52,53,52101800,560,51,52,54002010704002008011000011000042002040204100203040-1-1141-1014104743344742,54,5
285,1119937-11102,51,52,52,52,52,53,54,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,57,42,51,5970-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2,5-2,5150,54,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51315,1-2-2-22,5-1-2,5-2,5Tharu, Chaudhary, Brahmin, Kshetri, Gurung, Magar4,52,5-12,52,52,51,52802700,5615,51,515,5-160020020-150020030-110000-110000-160200200-140200400-1110110110110110110-1-1-12,54,5
286,1-11993-1-12332,51,52,52,52,51,53,53,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,51,55,52,51,5200-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2-22004,51,51,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51316,1-2-2-22,5-12,53,5Brahmin, Tharu, Newar, Magar, Kshetri1,54,5-12,52,53,53,53003000,525,51,50,440011700400117001117003117004538100040251100-106700233023302332,54,5
287,111993-1-1552,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,51,55,52,52,5330-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,500803,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51317,1-2-2-22,5-12,53,5Brahmin + Kshetri (70%), Damai+Kami (10%), Darai (15%), Magar (5%)1,54,5-12,52,52,53,53003000,5237,51,50,540028004002800228003280042122304014230-101500560122661222,54,5
288,1119935-146,42,51,52,52,52,51,53,53,51,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,46,52,51,51200,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,52,515,51,51,53,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51318,1-2-2-22,5-22,53,5Tharu (50%), Brahmin (30%), Chhetri (15%), Magar + Darai (5%)1,54,5-13,52,53,53,5300,5300,50,52,725,31,510,340023004002300123001230043201804240170-1036004609953592,54,5
289,111993-1-132,42,51,52,52,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,55,52,52,5112,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,50,5-2,575,53,53,55,55,41,55,41,510000.51,51319,1-2-2-22,5-12,5-2,5Darai (50%), Brahmin + Kshetri (25%), Others 25%1,54,5-12,52,52,53,5250,5250,56,620,51,50,540010010400100101164011640282460282460-1-1-1-10323240882,54,5
290,1119933-1-13,51,5-1-1-11,33,52,51,52,54,53,52,51,51,52,55,51,5-150,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,52,52,55,51,50,51,536,52,53,51,51,51,5-2-210000.56,51320,1-2-2-22,5-22,53,5Brahmin, Kshetri, Tharu.4,53,5-12,52,52,51,50,32,711,41,50,5-1-115-1-115-1150152,54,5
291,1119934-1300,42,51,52,52,53,51,53,52,51,52,52,52,52,51,51,51,57,52,51,51350,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,55,51,51,55,51,5-2-2225,55,53,51,51,51,51,51,502000.53,51321,1-2-2-22,5-22,53,5Kshetri (50%), Brahmin (30%), Magar + Gurung (10%), Damai + Kami + Sarki (10%)4,52,5-11,41,41,43,5300,5300,50,53,3322,51,511,5300400003004000014000024000032031736003152133700-1-113-11003001007005007001,52,5
292,1119934-112,52,41,52,52,51,51,53,51,51,41,51,51,52,41,51,51,55,52,52,550,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2-237,43,51,51,54,41,54,41,500001.5-11322,1-2-2-22,5-12,5-2Brahmin, Kshetri, Gurung, Newar1,5-2-12,52,52,53,5300,50,3310,51,50,5406450011100-101200216210152,54,5
293,1119935Proportional wier and drop structures1071,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,51,52,51,5-13,51,51,51,55,51,51,51200,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,54,51,51,54,52,58,51,5260,55,53,51,57,52,57,51,500000.56,51323,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmin + Kshetri (50%), Damai + Kami (33%), Kumal (17%)1,52,5-13,52,52,53,50,664,718,51,51,5-1-1-1-101076106661672,54,5
294,1119933-2351,51,52,42,43,51,53,51,52,52,51,51,52,51,51,52,5-2,51,51,575,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,54,55,52,5131,575,53,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21324,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Tibeto-Burman (75%), Pahadi (25%)4,54,5-22,41,42,53,5230,4220,40,331,661211400201070400101080110000110000120020600315010750-10121203513427292,54,5
295,1119934-17022-1-1-11,53,52,51,53,51,52,52,52,51,51,55,52,52,5300,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,45,41,5-1-190,53,511,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21325,1-2-2-2-1-1-2-2Kshetri (40%), Brahmin (50%), Tamang + Newar + Darai (10%)4,52,5Labor mobilization are maintained. Either the commodities or the cash can be the basis for the resource mobilization.2,52,52,51,4-1-18,51,52,5-101200680680682,54,5
296,1119933-2942,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,52,5-21,52,51000,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,51,51,55,41,4-2-2237,45,411,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51326,1-2-2-22,4-2-23,4Brahmin (50%), Kshetri (20%), Gurung + Magar (10%), Newar + Damai + Kami + Sarki (20%)6,52,5For big farmers, labour and cash. For middle farmers, only labour. For small farmers, labour at main canal only.2,42,42,41,4123,51,51,54,8066009402281342282,54,5
297,1119935-2692,51,52,52,52,52,43,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,52,5-21,42,5500,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,43,55,55,55,55,55,51,5-2-2184,54,54,51,52,51,52,51,510000.51,41327,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Tharus, Tibeto-Burman, Pahadis.4,54,5We observed labor mobilizing record keeping system quite different i.e. based on ethnicity, Tharu and Pahadi.2,42,52,51,4215,4180,40,666,6651,50400500504003007021000021000041050503545504050-106900690690692,54,5
298,1119932-2332,51,41,51,51,51,41,52,51,52,51,42,52,51,52,51,54,51,51,5100-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,55,52201,547,52,53,41,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51328,1-2-2-21,5-22,52,3Pahadi, Tibeto-Burman etc. .51,4-2Fines are not levied but the appropriators failing to attend labor days give more labor in his next turn.1,51,51,51,5220,4220,40,42,666,51,50,540020080400200801100001100004300070041000900-103300333330301,54,5
299,1119933-1322,51,52,52,52,52,53,52,52,52,51,52,52,51,51,52,5-22,51,5162,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,54,51,51,55,51,5-2-280,43,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51329,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmins (60%), Tamang (35%), Sarki and Kamis (5%).1,54,5The labor is mobilized based on farmers' status (eg. Big, Middle, Small farmers.)3,52,52,51,5-11,3317,51,52,5-1010003208654862,54,5
300,1119933-250,42,51,51,51,52,52,53,52,51,52,51,52,52,51,51,52,4-22,41,580-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,54,55,51,51,55,51,5-1-2104,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51330,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmins (60%), Chhetri (10%), Tamang (20%), Gurung (10%).4,54,5-12,52,52,51,50,471,672,51,510,5-1015005008333832,54,5
301,1119934Earlier it was a kind of group without a formal organization but, now recently an organization has been formed with new rules.33,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,52,52,51,51,51,51,51,51,52,51,51,5500,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,51,53,5-22,515,31,545,52,53,51,51,51,5-2-210000.51,51331,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2Darai(75%), Magar (10%), Newar (10%), Brahmins (5%)1,54,5For head work construction and maintenance: household basis, for appropriation and distribution resource: land basis2,51,52,53,5240,4240,40,52101,50400400604004006011000011000044001050043000700-102000330330332,54,5
302,1119937-230,51,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-22,5-22,52,5100,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,51,51,51,55,5-21,500502,51,51,50000-2-21332,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmins, Kshetri, Darai1,53,5Labor mobilization on the basis of land.2,52,52,53,5210,4220,40,334,611,50400200804002008011000011000023000601023000700-10-100301636620-24,5
303,1119933-2582,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,51,54,52,52,5800,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,51,55,55,55,55,55,51,5-2-2482,54,51,51,51,51,51,510000.51,51333,1-2-2-2-2,5-22,5-2,5Tharu + Chaudhary (95%), Bahun, Chhetri, others (05%)1,51,5-22,52,52,53,5280,4270,40,5642,41,52,420040402020040303011000011000015010040015050450-130585830585826-2-22,54,5
304,1119933-279,42,41,52,52,52,52,53,41,41,41,51,52,42,41,41,51,56,51,51,5240,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,51,54,45,5-21,5-21,5-2,5-2,5180,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51334,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Brahmin & chhetri (50%), Tamang (40%), Kumal, Bote, Darai, Kami (8%) and Gurung (2%)4,54,5If appropriators fail to contribute labour, they pay cash to WUA as per the rules.2,52,52,51,5260,4250,10,661,6635,41,50,440060040400500501100002100004001090040001000-101000330330332,54,5
305,1119934-214,41,51,52,52,52,51,53,51,52,52,51,51,52,52,51,51,56,41,52,5100,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,52,52,55,51,5-2,5-2,524,51,51,51,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2.5-2,51335,1-2.5-2.5-2.52,5-22,5-2,5Newars (70%), Gurungs (10%), Magars (10%), Brahmins (10%).5,53,5-1-2,51,52,53,5280,4280,40,252,40,51,50,540080020400800201100001100004002080040030700-1-1-1-101406248622,54,5
306,1119935-2132,31,5-2,52,51,52,51,53,52,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,51,56,51,52,5750,3-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,53,55,55,51,55,55,51,5-2,5-2,5120,44,53,51,51,51,51,51,500010.56,510336,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Brahman+Chhetri (60%), Danuwar (10%), Praja (5%), Magar, Gurung, kami, Damai (15%)4,52,5-11,52,52,53,5300,5-10,65,40,41,54,4-19001000-1-1-1-1-1-1-110000-1-1-1-1-1424900-1-1-1-1-1-1-113213213212013213213002,54,5
307,1119763-12001,51,53,52,52,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-2,51,57,52,52,5500,3-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,52,51,51,55,55,55,52,5200,34,5200,34,56,51,510,42,51,51,501000.51,51337,1-2-2-21,5Some influential persons influence the government body to get more water.1,53,5Tharu, chhetri, brahmin, kumal, darai & praja6,5-2,5-12,52,52,52,5300,4300,41,420,4-11,55,42400600033007000110000110000110100800210150750-160060060015060060045006001,54,5
308,1119932Fines imposed for water stealer and non-labor contributors. Construction of gabbion box to protect the headwork.352,41,52,52,52,51,53,42,51,52,51,51,51,5-21,51,57,51,51,5150,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,55,51,5-2,5-2,5502,51,52,52,51,51,51,510000.56,51338,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Brahmin (50%), Newar, Magar, Kami (50%)4,52,5-22,52,52,53,5400,4400,40,331,3301,50001000040010000110000110000400020004000200003500350394392,54,5
309,1119937-2832,51,54,54,54,52,53,53,51,53,51,52,52,51,51,52,5-2,52,51,5240,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,43,55,55,51,51,54,51,5-2,5-2,582,53,54,551,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51339,1-2-2-22,4-2-2-2Bahun (50%), Chhetri (10%), Tharu (25%), Newar (5%), Kami, Damai, Sarki (10%)1,54,5-14,54,53,51,5200,4200,40,66251,554003007040020080310000310000435023033450003020-10000830600272,54,5
310,1119933No change141,51,53,52,52,51,53,53,51,51,51,51,52,52,51,51,55,51,42,5300,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,52,53,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2-22011,51,5-2-2-2-200000.5-2,51340,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Brahmin (75%), Newar (15%), Magar (10%)4,52,5Labor mobilization is based on the households.2,52,52,53,5280,4280,40,663,6601,520400100004001000021000021000040008020400080201414140140140142,54,5
311,1119934Construction of various structures and development of written rules, and formation of WUA.1202,51,52,52,52,51,53,52,51,52,51,51,53,51,51,51,57,51,52,53250,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,54,51,5-2-2120,54,53,51,51,51,51,51,500010.51,51341,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Tamang, Bahun, Chhetri, Praja, Kami, Damai4,52,5-22,52,52,51,5300,5300,50,81,33101,54,52400600023007000110000110000210058502100108001161661163416634820822,54,5
312,1119934Rules formation for fines for absentees during repair maintenance of appropriation and production resource, and other sanctions.343,51,42,42,52,51,43,43,51,41,51,42,52,51,51,51,57,51,52,51089,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-22,5893,52,51,511,42,5-2-2-26,51342,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Brahmin+Chhetri (90%), Tharu, Tamang, Kami, Damai (10%)4,54,5-22,52,52,51,5220,4220,40,61,401,50400200804002008021000021000041000900410009000133003401331001332,54,5
313,1119937No change421,51,52,51,53,52,53,51,52,51,51,51,51,52,5-2,52,5-2,51,52,5120,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,55,55,5-2,55,45,51,5-2-2,5623,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2.5-2,51343,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetri1,52,5-22,51,52,53,5280,4300,40,663,33221,55415065020420080001100001100001250750012000800424242042424200-2,54,5
314,1119934-15021,5-2-2-21,53,51,52,51,51,54,54,51,41,52,5-2,53,51,550-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,51,44,51,51,5-21,5-2-2603,511,51,51,51,51,51,510000.56,51344,1-2-2-22-2-2,5-2,5Tharus(60%),Brahmin,Chhetri,Newar.4,54,5-14,52,53,52,5100,5100,51-101,544100000041000000300030004000004000000000500014202,54,5
315,1119933No332,51,53,53,53,51,53,54,51,41,51,52,52,51,51,52,5-21,52,5115,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,53,54,55,52,51,54,51,5-2-2733,53,51,51,51,51,51,511000.56,51345,1-2-2-22,5-2-2-2Brahmin, Chhetri, Gurung, Tamang (50%), Magar, Newar, Damai1,52,5-22,52,52,53,5192,5188,50,51,33211,503002502530025001500015000242510292523903636353333333332,54,5
316,1119933-2242,51,52,52,52,53,53,51,51,41,51,52,52,51,51,51,55,52,51,51000,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-21,51,51,45,41,44,54,41,5-2-230,52,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2-21346,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2Brahmin and Chhetri1,51,5-22,54,52,51,5300,4300,40,653,301,504001000040010000210000210000415008504150085002400240240242,54,5
317,1119977Headwork construction.142,51,52,52,52,53,53,54,41,34,43,41,42,51,51,51,56,51,51,59,5-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,5-2,5-2,55,51,5-21,59,51,52,52,5-2-2-2-2-2-21347,1-2-2-22,5-2-22,5Brahmin, Chhetri1,5-2-22,32,52,53,5200,4200,40,17201,5030000100300001001100001100002901000029010000-101414014140002,54,5
318,1119977Construction of the barraze and various structures.600,41,31,42,42,55,41,52,41,51,52,53,52,52,51,51,51,54,31,51,53000-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,55,55,52,55,55,51,5-2-2300,45,511,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21348,1-2-2-22,5-2-22,5Tharu (50%), Brahmin (20%), Chhetri (20%), Kami and Damai (10%).2,52,5-12,42,52,53,5300,4300,41130,41,50,411000000110000001100001100001500050015000500-165065065050060060015050502,54,5
319,1119977Construction of permanent dam and partial lining.3332,41,53,53,53,52,52,51,51,54,54,51,53,41,51,51,56,52,51,5900-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,55,55,52,55,55,51,52,52,5300,45,54,52,41,51,51,51,510000.51,51349,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,52,5Brahmin (50%), Chhetri Giri , Newar and othres (50%)1,52,5-2.52,52,52,53,5202,4202,40,661,6601,50302009830200981100001100003502480034020499-103333336333333327002,54,5
320,1119977Construction of a flume by ADBN in 1993.190,42,41,53,55,53,52,52,53,41,54,52,51,42,51,41,51,56,51,51,53000,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,5-2,52,52,55,51,5-2,5-2,5200,44,51,51,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2.5-2,51350,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2,5Tharu (75%), Ahir (20%) Kami (5%)1,53,5-22,52,54,54,5185,4185,41,31041,5030000100300001002100001100002800501528005015-101901900150150040402,54,5
321,1119977Headwork construction completed in 1993. However the total construction work had not been completed until July 1997.223,42,51,42,52,52,51,52,53,41,42,43,52,42,51,41,51,56,51,51,5600,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,52,54,55,51,5-2,56,4400,45,54,51,41,51,51,51,510000.51,51351,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,52,5Brahmin (50%), Chhetri (15%), Magar (5%), Tharu (10%), Kami Damai and others (20%)4,52,5-22,42,52,53,5202,4200,40,663,701,5030020983000010011000011000029510402961030-12232232233223223220002,54,5
322,11199711Construction of the intake and proportional weir in 1997 April.10662,51,51,41,41,42,42,44,51,41,51,51,42,51,51,51,55,51,51,5968,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,54,54,51,54,55,51,5-2,5-2,5850,36,53,51,51,51,51,51,511000.51,51352,1-2-2-22,5-2-2,5-2,5Tharu (25 %), Muslim (25%), Ahir (25%), Brahmin (25%)1,52,5The users of each branch contribute to labor to their respective branches, but all of them work together at the prod. resource.2,42,42,43,4200,4200,41,210101,5010000100100001001100001100002500500027502500-10106610660106610660002,54,5
323,1119977Formation of WUA in 1992 and contruction of flume by ADBNin 1992.133,42,41,52,52,52,51,43,42,41,52,52,52,52,51,51,51,57,51,53,53240-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,55,51,5-2,5-2,5200,44,53,51,51,51,51,51,501000.51,51353,1-2-2-22,5-22,5-2,5Brahmin and Chhetri (50%), Tharu and Kumal (30%), Magar and Gurung (20%)1,52,5-22,52,52,53,5300,4300,40,52,6101,5321000000210000001100001100001100000011000000-1013313301331330002,54,5
324,1119977Construction of flume.822,51,52,52,52,51,43,42,41,42,44,43,42,41,51,51,57,41,51,5540-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,51,5-21,5-2,5-2,577,43,54,41,41,51,51,51,501000.51,51354,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Brahmin (35%), Chhetri (35%), Giri (15%), Tharu (15%)1,52,5-22,52,52,53,5200,4200,40,66521,503000010030000100110000110000195500019010000-108282082820002,54,5
325,1119977In 1984, fines to be imposed was increased.18001,31,52,32,32,41,42,53,42,52,51,51,53,41,51,51,53,41,52,4320-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,41,55,55,51,52,55,51,5-2-215507,53,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21355,1-2-2-2Tharu (99%), Pahari (1%)1,52,5-1200,4200,430000100300001001100001100001500050015000500-1018001800018001200180006002,52,5
326,1119977System rehabilitation is in progress. After completion new rules will be formed.700,41,52,53,44,42,42,43,51,52,53,51,51,51,5-1-2,51,53,51,51,51200-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-222,52,51,55,41,51,55,51,5-2-25,53001,51,5-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,511000-2,51356,1-2-2-22,5-12,52,5Tharu, Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri, and others4,52,5-21,51,52,43,5210,4210,4213,33201,52,530001090300010901901001901001400060014000600-107004336670043363302662,54,5
327,1119972Initially labor was mobilized on the household basis, now it is mobilised on the basis of land.66,41,51,51,51,53,51,41,51,51,53,51,54,43,41,51,51,52,51,51,5525-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,42,51,55,55,54,45,51,5-2,5-2,5803,53,51,4-2,5-2,5-2,5-2,510000.45,31357,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,4GiriPuri, Brahmin, Chhetri, Magar, Kami, Sarki1,54,5-2.51,52,51,44,4200,3200,30,33101,5050000100500001003010003010001000100010001000-1006600590071,52,5
328,1119972-2181,51,51,51,52,41,53,51,51,41,51,51,51,52,52,51,52,52,42,540-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,55,55,5-2,52,341,514,51,51,51,5-2-2-2-2-2.5-21358,1-2-2-22,5-12,5-2Tharu1,51,4For maintenance and emergency works the appropriators collect either cash or kind.1,52,52,53,5200,4200,41,33231,5030000100300001003100003100003000100030001000-101818018180002,52,5
329,1119972-116,41,51,52,41,51,51,53,53,41,52,51,52,52,41,51,51,54,51,52,5125-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,52,45,54,54,45,51,5-2-22,52,51,51,51,51,5-2-210000.56,51359,1-2-2-22,5-22,52,5Magar, Chhetri, Sarki, Brahmin1,54,5-21,51,52,53,4200,4200,40,66201,5030000100300001001901001851501600040016000400-11616160161616002,52,5
330,1119977Some structures llike headwork, culverts, diversion box, retaining wall were constructed.1332,51,52,52,51,52,43,43,41,53,54,32,53,51,51,51,55,31,51,5645,3-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,51,55,55,51,55,55,51,5-2-2215,35,51,51,4-2-2-2-2-2-21359,1-2-2-22,5-2-22,5Tharu (50%), Chhetri (25%), Giri (20%), Brahmin (5%)1,54,5-22,52,42,53,5200,1200,40,313251,50400001004000010011000011002803890260815170-1013313301501500002,54,5
331,1119973Construction of retaining wall by CARE.4801,51,52,52,53,51,53,52,51,42,51,52,52,51,51,51,54,51,54,4504,4-2-2-2-2-2-2-2-22,52,53,45,51,55,45,51,5-2-25506,53,51,52,51,52,51,510000.51,51360,1-2-2-22,5-22,52